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Östermalm, Sweden

Henk H.,Health Economics and Outcomes Research | Teitelbaum A.,OptumInsight | Kaura S.,Novartis
Current Medical Research and Opinion | Year: 2012

Background: Skeletal complications of malignant bone disease are common among patients with both solid tumors and multiple myeloma (MM). Zoledronic acid (ZOL; Zometa*) is an intravenous bisphosphonate with proven efficacy in reducing the incidence of skeletal complications and delaying the time to a first skeletal complication. This study was designed to assess the continued benefit of ZOL treatment over a prolonged period. Methods: This was a retrospective claims analysis study using information gathered from two national US managed-care plan databases. Patients ≥18 years of age with a single type of solid tumor or MM who were diagnosed with bone lesions and experienced at least one skeletal complication (before or after receiving ZOL) were included. Results: Of the 28,385 patients, those with lung and breast cancer composed the largest group. Greater percentages of MM and breast cancer patients were treated with ZOL. On average, those with renal cell carcinoma and lung cancer had a longer time between bone metastasis diagnosis and start of therapy with ZOL. Compared with an untreated cohort, patients treated with ZOL had a 24 reduction in incidence of fracture, a 45 reduction in incidence of spinal cord compression, and a 56 reduction in risk of mortality. Patients with persistence with ZOL over 180 days had a reduced incidence of fracture before controlling for other factors. Conclusions: Patients treated with ZOL had reduced risks of fracture, spinal cord compression, and mortality compared with patients in the no-treatment cohort. Longer persistence with ZOL was associated with better outcomes. Greatest benefits were observed for patients treated on a regular basis with ZOL for a period beyond 18 months. © 2012 Informa UK Ltd.


Strom O.,Karolinska Institutet | Landfeldt E.,OptumInsight
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2012

Summary Automatic generic substitution of alendronate products, used to reduce drug costs, and medication persistence was studied retrospectively between 2006 and 2009. During this period the number of, and the rate of substitution between, alendronate products increased while persistence decreased. Patient preferences should be considered when designing and evaluating generic policies. Introduction Automatic generic substitution (AGS) was implemented in Sweden in 2002. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between AGS and persistence with alendronate treatment of primary osteoporosis in Sweden. Methods An open historical cohort of women and men (n= 36,433) was identified in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register through filled prescriptions for alendronate or risedronate between 2005 and 2009. Co-morbidity data was extracted from the National Patient Register. The association between AGS and medication persistence was investigated using non-parametric and parametric survival analysis. Results Between 2006 and 2009, the number of alendronate products increased from 15 to 25, the proportion of prescriptions constituting a substitution increased from 10.8% to 45.2%, and the proportion of patients persisting with alendronate treatment for 12 months fell from 66.9% to 51.7%. Patients starting alendronate treatment in 2006 had lower risk of stopping treatment compared with those starting in 2007 (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.29-1.39), 2008 (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.43-1.55), and 2009 (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.40-1.60). No difference was observed in persistence with proprietary risedronate during the same period. Individuals who had their alendronate product substituted at the first prescription refill had significantly higher probability of discontinuation (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.20-1.30). Conclusion AGS causes increased product substitution which appears to be associated with reduced treatment persistence. Poor health outcomes and associated costs due to forgone drug exposure should be taken into account in the design and evaluation of policies implemented to encourage utilisation of generic medicines. © International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2011.


Svedbom A.,OptumInsight
Archives of osteoporosis | Year: 2014

This report describes the epidemiology, economic burden and treatment of osteoporosis in Switzerland. Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mass and disruption of bone architecture, resulting in increased risks of fragility fractures which represent the main clinical consequence of the disease. Fragility fractures are associated with substantial pain and suffering, disability and even death for the affected patients and substantial costs to society. The aim of this report is to describe the epidemiology and economic burden of fragility fractures as a consequence of osteoporosis in Switzerland, as a detailed addition to the report for the European Union (EU27): "Osteoporosis in the European Union: Medical Management, Epidemiology and Economic Burden". The literature on fracture incidence and costs of fractures in Switzerland was reviewed and incorporated into a model estimating the clinical and economic burden of osteoporotic fractures in 2010. Furthermore, data on sales of osteoporosis treatments and the population at high risk of fracture were used to estimate treatment uptake and treatment gap. It was estimated that approximately 74,000 new fragility fractures were sustained in Switzerland in 2010, comprising 14,000 hip fractures, 11,000 vertebral fractures, 13,000 forearm fractures and 36,000 other fractures (i.e. fractures of the pelvis, rib, humerus, tibia, fibula, clavicle, scapula, sternum and other femoral fractures). The economic burden of incident and previous fragility fractures was estimated at CHF 2,050 million for the same year. Incident fractures represented 76 % of this cost, long-term fracture care 21 % and pharmacological prevention 3 %. Previous and incident fractures also accounted for 24,000 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost during 2010. When accounting for the demographic projections for 2025, the number of incident fractures was estimated at 98,786 in 2025, representing an increase of 25,000 fractures. Hip, clinical vertebral (spine), forearm and other fractures were estimated to increase by 4,900, 3,200, 3,500 and 13,000, respectively. The burden of fractures in terms of costs (excluding value of QALYs lost) in Switzerland in 2025 was estimated to increase by 29 % to CHF 2,642 million. Though the uptake of osteoporosis treatments increased from 2001, the proportion of patients aged 50 or above who received treatment remained at low levels in the past few years. The majority of women at high fracture risk do not receive active treatment. In spite of the high cost of osteoporosis, a substantial treatment gap and projected increase of the economic burden driven by an aging population, the use of pharmacological prevention of osteoporosis is significantly less than optimal, suggesting that a change in health care policy concerning the disease is warranted.


Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the comparative gastrointestinal tolerability of proprietary versus generic alendronate in patients treated for primary osteoporosis. Methods: The study was based on all patients starting therapy with alendronate in Sweden between 2005 and 2009. The primary outcome measure was the start of treatment with a gastroprotective agent and the secondary outcome was hospitalization for gastrointestinal adverse event (GIAE). The incidence of both outcomes was measured within the first six months after the initiation of the alendronate treatment. Results: The crude incidence of gastroprotective treatment during the first six months following the start of the alendronate therapy was 5.45% (bootstrapped CI95 4.09%-7.19%) and 5.04% (bootstrapped CI95 4.74%-5.38%) for patients prescribed proprietary and generic alendronate, respectively. The crude six-month incidence of hospitalization for GIAE was 0.43% (bootstrapped CI95 0.14%-1.29%) and 0.71% (bootstrapped CI95 0.55%-0.91%) for proprietary and generic alendronate, respectively. Controlling for age, sex, and other available covariates, there was no significant difference in the risk of GIAEs between proprietary and generic alendronate. Conclusions: No significant difference in the incidence of GIAEs was identified between patients prescribed proprietary and generic alendronate between 2005 and 2009 in Sweden. More research is needed to provide conclusive evidence of the gastrointestinal tolerability profiles of proprietary and generic alendronate. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Svedbom A.,OptumInsight | Alvares L.,Medtronic | Cooper C.,University of Southampton | Cooper C.,University of Oxford | And 2 more authors.
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2013

The purpose of the study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of balloon kyphoplasty compared to nonsurgical management and vertebroplasty for the treatment of hospitalised osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures in the UK. A cost-effectiveness model was constructed and used for analysis. Balloon kyphoplasty may be cost-effective compared to relevant alternatives. Introduction: The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of balloon kyphoplasty (BKP) for the treatment of patients hospitalised with acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF) compared to percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and nonsurgical management (NSM) in the UK. Methods: A Markov simulation model was developed to evaluate treatment with BKP, NSM and PVP in patients with symptomatic OVCF. Data on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) with acute OVCF were derived from the FREE and VERTOS II randomised clinical trials (RCTs) and normalised to the NSM arm in the FREE trial. Estimated differences in mortality among the treatments and costs for NSM were obtained from the literature whereas procedure costs for BKP and PVP were obtained from three National Health Service hospitals. It was assumed that BKP and PVP reduced hospital length of stay by 6 days compared to NSM. Results: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated at Great Britain Pound Sterling (GBP) 2,706 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) and GBP 15,982 per QALY compared to NSM and PVP, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that the cost-effectiveness of BKP vs. NSM was robust when mortality and HRQoL benefits with BKP were varied. The cost-effectiveness of BKP compared to PVP was particularly sensitive to changes in the mortality benefit. Conclusion: BKP may be a cost-effective strategy for the treatment of patients hospitalised with acute OVCF in the UK compared to NSM and PVP. Additional RCT data on the benefits of BKP and PVP compared to simulated sham surgery and further data on the mortality benefits with BKP compared to NSM and PVP would reduce uncertainty. © 2012 International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation.

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