Kim H.,Seoul National University |
Song K.D.,Hankyong National University |
Kim H.J.,Seoul National University |
Park W.,Seoul National University |
And 25 more authors.
Since being domesticated about 10,000-12,000 years ago, domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus ) have been selected for traits of economic importance, in particular large body size. However, Yucatan miniature pigs have been selected for small body size to withstand high temperature environment and for laboratory use. This renders the Yucatan miniature pig a valuable model for understanding the evolution of body size. We investigate the genetic signature for selection of body size in the Yucatan miniature pig. Phylogenetic distance of Yucatan miniature pig was compared to other large swine breeds (Yorkshire, Landrace, Duroc and wild boar). By estimating the XP-EHH statistic using re-sequencing data derived from 70 pigs, we were able to unravel the signatures of selection of body size. We found that both selections at the level of organism, and at the cellular level have occurred. Selection at the higher levels include feed intake, regulation of body weight and increase in mass while selection at the molecular level includes cell cycle and cell proliferation. Positively selected genes probed by XP-EHH may provide insight into the docile character and innate immunity as well as body size of Yucatan miniature pig. © 2015 Kim et al. Source
Ko E.-K.,Optipharm Inc. |
Heo E.J.,Ministry of Food and Drug Safety |
Kim Y.J.,Ministry of Food and Drug Safety |
Park H.J.,Ministry of Food and Drug Safety |
And 2 more authors.
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
This study was performed to evaluate the microbiological contamination level of raw beef from retail markets in Seoul, Korea. The sampling and laboratory test were performed according to the procedure of "Standard for processing and ingredients specification of livestock product" and "Korean food code". Enterotoxin of Staphylococcus aureus isolates were detected using VIDAS® and PCR-based methods. Listeria monocytogenes serotyping and genotyping were carried out using Listeria antisera and L. monocytogenes Fingerprinting kit, respectively. A total of 48 samples were collected from 16 retail markets (butcher's shop: 5, department store: 6, supermarket: 5) in 2011. The level of total bacteria counts in the butcher's shop, department store and supermarket were 4.4×103 CFU/g, 3.9×105 CFU/g and 1.0×104 CFU/g, respectively. The concentrations of Escherichia coli of these three retail markets were 6.4×10 CFU/g, 7.6 CFU/g and 2.0×10 CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella species was not detected on all samples. However, S. aureus was isolated in the 3 samples (6.25%) from each type of three retail markets. L. monocytogenes was isolated in the 4 samples (8.3%) from department stores. The level of contamination of these foodborne bacteria was less than 100 CFU/g. The enterotoxin-encoding genes of S. aureus isolates were sea, seh, sei and sep gene. The gene similarity of L. monocytogenes isolated from two retail markets by Rep-PCR showed 57.8-98.1% and 68.1-98.1%, respectively. These results suggest that the HACCP guideline for environmental control in slaughterhouse and retail markets should be provided to prevent cross contamination and manage foodborne pathogens such as L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. Source
Oqani R.K.,Chungnam National University |
Lin T.,Chungnam National University |
Lee J.E.,Chungnam National University |
Choi K.M.,Optipharm Inc. |
And 2 more authors.
Positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) is a RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain (Pol II CTD) kinase that phosphorylates Ser2 of the CTD and promotes the elongation phase of transcription. Despite the fact that P-TEFb has role in many cellular processes, the role of this kinase complex remains to be understood in mammalian early developmental events. In this study, using immunocytochemical analyses, we found that the P-TEFb components, CDK9, Cyclin T1 and Cyclin T2 were localized to nuclear speckles, as well as in nucleolar-like bodies in pig germinal vesicle oocytes. Using nascent RNA labeling and small molecule inhibitors, we showed that inhibition of CDK9 activity abolished the transcription of GV oocytes globally. Moreover, using fluorescence in situ hybridization, in absence of CDK9 kinase activity the production of ribosomal RNAs was impaired. We also presented the evidences indicating that P-TEFb kinase activity is essential for resumption of oocyte meiosis and embryo development. Treatment with CDK9 inhibitors resulted in germinal vesicle arrest in maturing oocytes in vitro. Inhibition of CDK9 kinase activity did not interfere with in vitro fertilization and pronuclear formation. However, when in vitro produced zygotes were treated with CDK9 inhibitors, their development beyond the 4-cell stage was impaired. In these embryos, inhibition of CDK9 abrogated global transcriptional activity and rRNA production. Collectively, our data suggested that P-TEFb kinase activity is crucial for oocyte maturation, embryo development and regulation of RNA transcription in pig. © 2016 Oqani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source
Lim T.-H.,Optipharm Inc. |
Youn H.-N.,Konkuk University |
Yuk S.-S.,Konkuk University |
Kwon J.-H.,Konkuk University |
And 6 more authors.
A natural recombinant nephropathogenic K40/09 strain of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was heat-adapted for possible future use as live attenuated vaccine. The K40/09 strain was selected during successive serial passages in specific-pathogen free (SPF) embryonated eggs at sub-optimal higher temperature (56. °C). Unlike the parental strain, the attenuated strain, designated K40/09 HP50, was found to be safe in 1-day-old SPF chicks, which showed neither mortality nor signs of morbidity, and rarely induced ciliostasis or histological changes in the trachea and kidney after intraocular and fine-spray administration. K40/09 HP50 provided almost complete protection against two distinct subgroups of a nephropathogenic strain (KM91-like and QX-like subgroup) and elicited the production of high titers of neutralizing antibody (neutralization index of 3.6). We conclude that the K40/09 HP50 vaccine virus is rapidly attenuated by heat adaptation and exhibits the desired level of attenuation, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy required for a live attenuated vaccine. These results indicate that the K40/09 vaccine could be helpful for the reduction of economic losses caused by recently emergent nephropathogenic IBV infection in many countries. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Lee K.E.,Yonsei University |
Han B.K.,Optipharm Inc. |
Han J.Y.,Seoul National University |
Hong J.Y.,Yonsei University |
And 5 more authors.
Yonsei Medical Journal
Purpose: House dust mites (HDMs) are an important source of indoor allergens associated with asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Chicken immunoglobulin (Ig) Y is known to be a good alternative to mice and rabbit antibody production. In this study, we produced IgYs specific to HDMs and investigated their IgE immunoreactivities. Materials and Methods: Total IgYs were isolated from the yolks of White Leghorn hens immunized with either Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus or D. farinae protein extract. Control antibodies were separated from the yolks of immunized hens with phosphate buffered saline. IgYs specific to HDMs were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting analysis. Results: The concentration of egg IgY specific to D. farinae in an immunized hen increased and the highest achieved was 661.3 ug/mg (per an egg) on day 47, compared with 760 ug/mg IgY specific to D. pteronyssinus on day 16. The D. pteronyssinus or D. farinae-specific IgY was detected by binding of each mite proteins, and their immunoreactivities were elevated dependent of the specific IgY concentration. Conclusion: IgY specific to HDMs may be a promising antibody for immunological diagnosis as well as identification of possible resistance relating to HDM allergy. © Yonsei University College of Medicine 2014. Source