Optimized Gas Treating Inc.

Houston, TX, United States

Optimized Gas Treating Inc.

Houston, TX, United States

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Weiland G.S.A.,Optimized Gas Treating Inc. | Hatcher N.A.,Optimized Gas Treating Inc. | Jones C.E.,Optimized Gas Treating Inc. | Weiland R.H.,Optimized Gas Treating Inc.
Sulphur 2016 32nd International Conference and Exhibition | Year: 2016

Ammonia typically evolves from nitrogen-containing components in processing crude oil. Processing and handling sour gas and sour water containing ammonia in an environmentally acceptable manner has always been a challenge in refineries and is the focal point for many designs and patents. There are two main objectives that these designs and patents attempt to achieve: (1) purifying ammonia-bearing sour water to prepare the water for further processing or discharge and (2) the disposing of the ammonia once it has been removed from the sour water. Options for disposing of ammonia include destroying it and selling it as a product if it meets purity standards. This paper focuses on a common method for disposing of the ammonia: destroying it in the reaction furnace of a Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU). When directed to an SRU, nearly complete destruction of ammonia is needed to prevent plugging the SRU with ammonia salts. The effectiveness of ammonia destruction is strongly influenced by the configuration and operation of the reaction furnace. The two hardware configurations considered in this paper are one-zone and two-zone designs. The two-zone design that will be considered has one burner at the front of the first reaction chamber. These are two of the most common reaction furnace configurations used in SRUs. This paper will give a brief introduction to each reaction furnace design followed by a discussion of ammonia destruction chemistry and conclude with a case study to illustrate how the design and operating parameters affect ammonia destruction.


Sridhar U.M.,Covestro LLC | Govindarajan A.,Optimized Gas Treating Inc. | Rhinehart R.R.,Oklahoma State University
ISA Transactions | Year: 2015

This work reveals the applicability of a relatively new optimization technique, Leapfrogging, for both nonlinear regression modeling and a methodology for nonlinear model-predictive control. Both are relatively simple, yet effective. The application on a nonlinear, pilot-scale, shell-and-tube heat exchanger reveals practicability of the techniques. © 2015 ISA.


PubMed | Covestro LLC, Oklahoma State University and Optimized Gas Treating Inc.
Type: | Journal: ISA transactions | Year: 2016

This work reveals the applicability of a relatively new optimization technique, Leapfrogging, for both nonlinear regression modeling and a methodology for nonlinear model-predictive control. Both are relatively simple, yet effective. The application on a nonlinear, pilot-scale, shell-and-tube heat exchanger reveals practicability of the techniques.


Khanmamedov T.K.,TKK Company | Weiland R.H.,Optimized Gas Treating Inc.
Sulphur 2013 29th International Conference and Exhibition | Year: 2013

Patented HIGHSULF™ technology is one of the most effective methodologies for acid gas enrichment (AGE) and tail gas treatment (TGTU), and it can be highly beneficial when applied to shale gas treatment as well. Based on the use of generic N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), the technology enriches weak acid gas sulphur recovery unit (SRU) feed to much higher H2S concentrations than conventional AGE. Distinct from all known AGE schemes, HIGHSULF also allows effective control of H2S concentration in the feed and more reliable operation of the SRU. This leads to more stable and efficient operation of the SRU and a higher level of sulphur recovery. A new member of the family of HIGHSULF technologies, called HIGHSULF PLUS" is discussed by comparison with conventional AGE units. Also, a synergistic effect observed when HIGHSULF PLUS is applied to the amine section of a TGTU is discussed. In this application, HIGHSULF-PLUS reduces the level of H2S going to the incinerator, increases H2S concentration in acid gas, and substantially reduces cooling requirements for the lean amine in the trim cooler and the condenser of the regenerator. In hot climates it can be very difficult to achieve low enough lean amine temperatures using ambient air. HIGHSULF PLUS is one of the best ways to solve this problem. Simulation and design numbers for a commercial unit are presented for discussion.


Hatcher N.,Optimized Gas Treating Inc. | Weiland R.,Optimized Gas Treating Inc.
Petroleum Technology Quarterly | Year: 2012

Perhaps the most important message of this article is that genuine mass transfer rate-based modelling allows the construction of a virtual plant on a computer. There is no reliance on what might be termed "fudge factors" to achieve agreement between calculations and reality. A mass transfer rate-based sour water stripper model provides a virtual sour water stripper on a computer. Engineers can now design sour water stripper units with unprecedented accuracy and reliability. Plant operations personnel can answer a wide range of what-if questions to troubleshoot operations and to optimise existing units with complete confidence in the results. After overall tray efficiencies, Murphree vapour efficiencies are probably the most commonly used type of efficiency for tray calculations. Overall efficiencies are an invention of the 1920s, developed to allow ideal stage distillation calculations to approximate reality more closely, and as 90-year-old technology they have served the distillation business well. However, the whole equilibrium-stage approach was superseded by mass transfer rate calculation methods in the mid- to late 1980s, already more than 25 years ago. The gas treating industry deals with far more complex separations processes than distillation, but, unfortunately, it has been remarkably slow to catch on to the new technology. Genuine mass transfer rate-based simulation is an extremely powerful tool in gas treating. There are several other messages that pertain directly to sour water stripping: • H 2S efficiency varies enormously from tray to tray throughout a sour water stripper, and the Murphree efficiency is a very sensitive function of the steam-to-sour-water flow rate ratio. Any attempt to generalise H 2S component efficiency is utterly futile because of its huge variation from only a few per cent to 50% across a column and its dependency on the particular operating conditions of each unique situation • With respect to efficiencies pertinent to H 2S stripping, the tray count and the steam required depend heavily on the treated water specifications to be met. Thus, the designer is faced with really quite a difficult decision - more trays and more stripping energy lead to lower efficiency. What and where is the balance? Should one use more or less steam, and more or fewer trays? These effects cannot be accounted for with an ideal stage model, even when it uses efficiency. The process appears to be too complex to generalise into rules of thumb • At stripping steam rates in the lower half of the normal range used in practice, it is quite possible for the ammonia concentration in a sour water stripper to show an enormous bulge or maximum in some part of the stripping section well away from the ends. At this bulge, the sour water stripper changes from acting as an ammonia stripper to an ammonia absorber. When (and where) the bulge occurs, there is a high enough H 2S concentration in the liquid to attract ammonia into the water phase and hold it there chemically. Again, ideal stage models even with efficiency do not show this kind of behaviour, and they can lead to either gross overdesign or to a complete mis-design, depending on the relative H 2S and ammonia concentrations in the sour water feed • Murphree vapour efficiencies for ammonia in sour water strippers operating at low to moderate stripping steam rates can vary from large negative values to positive values well over 100%. At high stream rates, on the other hand, Murphree vapour efficiencies for ammonia stripping are typically 35% to 40%. This huge variation depending on steam rate and H 2S- to-NH3 ratio may go a long way towards explaining the wide range of 15% to 45% overall efficiency often quoted by practitioners • Contrary to a commonly repeated anecdote, higher stripper pressures do not favour better ammonia stripping, and they certainly do not favour H 2S stripping where a factor of 80 loss in performance was predicted, even for the setup in this study. In conclusion, this article has pointed out several aspects of sour water stripping that either do not seem to have been recognised heretofore, or that offer solid scientific explanations for previously observed and reported characteristics.


Weiland R.H.,Optimized Gas Treating Inc. | Weiland G.S.A.,Optimized Gas Treating Inc. | Hatcher N.A.,Optimized Gas Treating Inc.
Sulphur 2015 - 31st Annual Conference of Sulphur and Sulphuric Acid | Year: 2015

Methylmonoethanolamine (MMEA) is one of the secondary amines produced by the degradation of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). It is frequently present in the MDEA solvents used in tail gas treating units (TGTUs) and is a possible contaminant in acid gas enrichment (AGE) as well. The presence of MMEA seems to be associated with SO2breakthrough events from the sulfur plant into the TGTU amine system. MMEA is a highly reactive amine with fast kinetics, and its presence even in relatively small concentrations (typically less than 1% by weight) is shown to cause tremendous loss of selectivity by increasing the absorption rate of carbon dioxide. This paper presents two case studies that establish MMEA as a cause for much lower-than-expected selectivity in a TGTU and loss of sulphur plant feed gas quality in two AGE applications.


Weiland R.H.,Optimized Gas Treating Inc. | Hatcher N.A.,Optimized Gas Treating Inc. | Jones C.E.,Optimized Gas Treating Inc.
GPA Annual Convention Proceedings | Year: 2015

An optimally designed deep CO2 removal plant for LNG uses close to the minimum operable solvent flow rate and operates the regenerator using the lowest functional reboiler duty. A negative consequence can be a broad temperature bulge, very commonly present in the CO2 absorbers of well-designed plants. This can make small excursions in flow or composition hard to handle and may limit processing higher carbon dioxide content gas or a higher throughput without costly equipment changes. This case study shows how intercooling can easily avoid the capital expense and downtime of making such changes. In the study, using a simple intercooler part way down the absorber allowed more than a 50% increase in CO2 removal capacity without additional utilities. Intercooling can also result in a smaller initial plant with significant savings in CAPEX and OPEX.


Hatcher N.A.,Optimized Gas Treating Inc. | Weiland R.H.,Optimized Gas Treating Inc.
12AIChE - 2012 AIChE Spring Meeting and 8th Global Congress on Process Safety, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2012

Many refiners have instituted guidelines for purging amine regenerator reflux water for corrosion control. The true amount of ammonia ingress, and its material balance across refinery amine unit has not been discussed, because until now, rate-based mass transfer models have not been available. A discussion covers the rate-based mass transfer models, where available, and comparisons to plant data measurements; how much ammonia can accumulate based upon choice of regenerator operating conditions; how much ammonia rejection into the amine acid gas does this correspond to, and its significant concern to downstream operations; whether ammonia build to levels that will cause additional H 2S to be trapped leading to higher lean loadings, reduced treating performance, or even regenerator flooding; how does the choice of HDS cold separator operating conditions impact the ingress of ammonia to the amine system; and how much ammonia skates through refinery amine treaters. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2012 AIChE Spring National Meeting and 8th Global Congress on Process Safety (Houston, TX 4/1-5/2012).


Weiland R.H.,Optimized Gas Treating Inc. | Hatcher N.A.,Optimized Gas Treating Inc.
12AIChE - 2012 AIChE Spring Meeting and 8th Global Congress on Process Safety, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2012

The sour water system is often considered to be a refinery's sewer. It consists of water used for quenching and scrubbing HDS cold separators, sulfur plant vent gas, blow-down from amine regenerator reflux sections, and waste water from other operations. Sour water strippers are moderately-large reboiled towers, in which ammonia and other gases are removed from the sour water by steam stripping. A model was used to determine tray efficiencies for ammonia and H 2S stripping, how they vary across the height of a tower, and what and how operating variables influence them. The effect of heat stable salts and caustic injection for pH control on the treat-ability of sour water to specified residual levels of ammonia and H 2S was determined. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2012 AIChE Spring National Meeting and 8th Global Congress on Process Safety (Houston, TX 4/1-5/2012).


Trademark
Optimized Gas Treating Inc. | Date: 2012-02-07

Computer software for engineering design of gas treating plants.

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