Miller R.,LMI |
Health Affairs | Year: 2011
In the next decade, at least twelve additional vaccines that target such diseases as typhoid, malaria, and dengue will become available to lower- and middle-income countries. These vaccines must travel along what are called supply chains, which include all personnel, systems, equipment, and activities involved in ensuring that vaccines are effectively delivered from the point of production to the people who need them. But for various reasons, supply chains are already strained in many developing countries, and the potential inability to distribute new vaccines will place lives at risk. Among the many steps needed to strengthen the global vaccine supply chain, we suggest that the international community pursue improved coordination between organizations that donate and ship vaccines and the host-country officials who receive and distribute the vaccines, as well as better training for supply-chain managers. © 2011 Project HOPE-The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Zipursky S.,Optimize |
Djingarey M.H.,World Health Organization |
Lodjo J.-C.,Ministry of Health |
Olodo L.,Ministry of Health |
Ronveaux O.,World Health Organization
Vaccine | Year: 2014
Background: In October 2012, the Meningococcal A conjugate vaccine MenAfriVac was granted a label variation to allow for its use in a controlled temperature chain (CTC), at temperatures of up to 40. °C for not more than four days. This paper describes the first field use of MenAfriVac in a CTC during a campaign in Benin, December 2012, and assesses the feasibility and acceptability of the practice. Methods: We implemented CTC in one selected district, Banikoara (target population of 147,207; 1-29 years of age), across 14 health facilities and 150 villages. We monitored the CTC practice using temperature indicators and daily monitoring sheets. At the end of the campaign we conducted a face-to-face survey to assess vaccinators' and supervisors' experience with CTC. Findings: A mix of strategies were implemented in the field to maximize the benefits from CTC practice, depending on the distance from health centre to populations and the availability of a functioning refrigerator in the health centre. Coverage across Banikoara was 105.7%. Over the course of the campaign only nine out of approx. 15,000 vials were discarded due to surpassing the 4 day CTC limit and no vial was discarded because of exposure to a temperature higher than 40. °C or due to the Vaccine Vial Monitor (VVM) reaching its endpoint. Overall confidence and perceived usefulness of the CTC approach were very high among vaccinators and supervisors. Interpretation: Vaccinators and supervisors see clear benefits from the CTC approach in low income settings, especially in hard-to-reach areas or where cold chain is weak. Taking advantage of the flexibility offered by CTC opens the door for the implementation of new immunization strategies to ensure all those at risk are protected. © 2014.
36th International Conference Computer Measurement Group | Year: 2010
This paper presents a new approach for measuring CICS transactions reported on SMF type 110 Performance records throughout the use of z/OS Dynamic Exits facility to buffer the collected data in memory. The data is downloaded on real-time basis to SQL databases on open platforms via TCP/IP protocol. This innovative approach totally eliminates the need for DASD space and its associated I/O demands on the mainframe. Copyright © 2010, Unisys Corporation. All rights reserved.
Optimize | Date: 2011-04-12
Optimize | Date: 2012-07-10
Magnetic coded gift cards. Promoting the goods and services of others by providing an interactive website where users can increase the current value of an online discount being offered by purchasing the goods and services associated with that discount in the form of an online coupon, voucher or gift card.