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Rad M.M.,University of Waterloo | Fouli K.,Optical Zeitgeist Laboratory | Fathallah H.A.,King Saud University | Rusch L.A.,Laval University | Maier M.,Optical Zeitgeist Laboratory
IEEE Communications Magazine | Year: 2011

As PONs carry increasing amounts of data, issues relating to their protection and maintenance are becoming crucial. In-service monitoring of the PON's fiber infrastructure is a powerful enabling tool to those ends, and a number of techniques have been proposed, some of them based on optical time-domain reflectometry. In this work we address the required features of PON monitoring techniques and review the major candidate technologies. We highlight some of the limitations of standard and adapted OTDR techniques as well as non- OTDR schemes. Among the proposed opticallayer monitoring schemes, we describe our novel optical-coding-based reflection monitoring proposal and report on recent progress. We end with a discussion of promising solution paths. © 2006 IEEE.


Maier M.,Optical Zeitgeist Laboratory
2014 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops, ICC 2014 | Year: 2014

Global cellular networks are currently undergoing a major paradigm shift to cope with the unprecedented growth of mobile data traffic driven by the popularity of smart phones and mobile-connected tablets running diverse data-centric applications. In fiber-wireless (FiWi) enhanced LTE-Advanced heterogeneous networks (HetNets), the traditional barriers between coverage-centric mobile networks and capacity-centric FiWi broadband access networks may be removed in order to benefit from fiber backhaul sharing and WiFi offloading. In this paper, we elaborate on emerging trends, identify open key research challenges to unleash the full potential of FiWi enhanced LTE-Advanced HetNets, including their future convergence with other technologies and economic sectors, and attempt to make an educated guess about possible moonshot perspectives for future non-incremental FiWi research. © 2014 IEEE.


Charni R.,Optical Zeitgeist Laboratory | Maier M.,Optical Zeitgeist Laboratory
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid | Year: 2014

Most previous total cost of ownership (TCO) studies give insight into the overall costs of various communications network architectures under the assumption of the traditional vertical integration model. However, it is necessary to take a closer look at the possibilities and gains achieved through collaboration. In this work, we develop a flexible, generic yet comprehensive TCO framework for the rollout of integrated fiber-wireless (FiWi) smart grid communications infrastructures. Further, we propose a novel collaborative implementation model for a shared infrastructure for both broadband access and smart grid communications. In addition, we take into account that buildings currently shift from a product to a service (i.e., renewable power supply) and exploit the idea that housing companies may collaborate by offering surplus renewable energy to communications network providers across interconnected smart microgrids. We study the impact of our implementation model on TCO and compare it with the vertical integration model. We also conduct a sensitivity analysis for the key cost parameters and analyze the risks related to solar power intermittency and random fiber cuts in terms of power service penalty, fiber cut related costs, and TCO. © 2010-2012 IEEE.


Maier M.,Optical Zeitgeist Laboratory
IEEE International Conference on High Performance Switching and Routing, HPSR | Year: 2016

Google recently introduced U.S. pilot Project Fi in cooperation with two major 4G LTE network operators. Project Fi intelligently connects mobile users to free open WiFi hotspots or otherwise, if not possible, seamlessly moves them between the two partner LTE networks for delivering the most reliable and fastest available wireless service. Project Fi may be an important step towards meeting the 5G requirements of ultra-high reliability and very low latency while taking economic considerations into account. Following the integrative vision of 5G, this paper attempts to provide further insights into the potential of Project Fi wireless service by elaborating on the integration of 4G LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) heterogeneous networks (HetNets) and low-cost data-centric Ethernet based fiber-wireless (FiWi) broadband access networks with not only WiFi offloading but also cost-saving fiber infrastructure sharing capabilities for small cell backhaul, which is becoming a major performance-limiting factor in mobile networks. Furthermore, given that decentralization is another important aspect of the 5G vision, we develop a decentralized routing algorithm for the resultant FiWi enhanced LTE-A HetNets. © 2015 IEEE.


Fouli K.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Maier M.,Optical Zeitgeist Laboratory | Maier M.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Medard M.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
IEEE Communications Magazine | Year: 2011

As the emerging access architecture, NGPONs feature enhanced PON configurations, metro-access integration, and bimodal fiberwireless (FiWi) networks. The moving landscape of NG-PONs provides opportunities for applying novel and promising technologies such as network coding (NC). In this work, we introduce the basic principles of NC and discuss their applicability to NG-PONs, with a focus on layer 2 design. Our example illustrations and simulations demonstrate significant potential performance improvements in various NG-PON scenarios while clarifying some underlying topological constraints of NC. © 2011 IEEE.


Maier M.,Optical Zeitgeist Laboratory
2013 9th International Conference on the Design of Reliable Communication Networks, DRCN 2013 | Year: 2013

In coming years, broadband access networks are expected to undergo a couple of paradigm shifts. First, copper will play a less important role and eventually give way to bimodal fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks. Second, broadband access networks will become less an end in itself than a means to an end by exploiting them not only for telecommunications per se but also other relevant economic sectors of the future low carbon society. Despite recent research activities demonstrating that both fiber and wireless media might be also used to transfer small amounts of energy over limited distances, it is anticipated that fiber and wireless technologies represent the two remaining complementary building blocks of future converged communications networks, while copper remains the energy (but not necessarily data) transmission medium of choice in future smart power grids. In this paper, we explore ways of using dependent FiWi access networks to enable or enhance the dependability of other critical infrastructures of today's society, most notably the future smart power grid. After discussing the respective pros and cons of a variety of available access networking technologies, we elaborate on the rationale behind the design choices of our Über-FiWi network and showcase its suitability as a holistic end-to-end smart grid communications infrastructure for next-generation power distribution networks via illustrative experimental and co-simulation studies on emulated power blackouts during a security breach and coordinated plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging without a deviated voltage profile and deteriorated power quality. © 2013 Scientific Assoc for infocom.


Maier M.,Optical Zeitgeist Laboratory
IEEE International Conference on Communications | Year: 2012

Survivability will play a more prominent role in emerging high-speed, multichannel, long-reach next-generation passive optical networks (NG-PONs) than it did in conventional PONs. In this paper, we report on some of the most promising NG-PON survivability techniques such as dual homing, hitless protection switching by means of equalization delays, interconnection fibers, protection rings, and meshed PON topologies, including their cost-benefit analysis for different population densities. We pay particular attention to the design of advanced inservice monitoring techniques for fault detection and localization in PON distribution fibers and study the merits of combining partial optical protection with wireless protection for realizing reliable fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks and exploiting them to improve the survivability of other critical networks such as the future smart grid. © 2012 IEEE.


Maier M.,Optical Zeitgeist Laboratory | Herzog M.,SAP
IEEE Communications Magazine | Year: 2010

Understanding the social impact of advanced access technologies and witnessing that applications are increasingly based on content provided by end users, we take a look at next-generation EPON networks and elaborate on their suitability to efficiently support online gaming and P2P file sharing applications by means of evolutionary WDM and long-reach PON upgrades. We examine a scalable all-optical integration of WDM EPONs, which exploits the unique traffic characteristics of P2P file sharing and online gaming applications, and supports them with an incremental add-on service with fallback option. © 2010 IEEE.


Maier M.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Maier M.,TU Berlin | Levesque M.,Paradigm | Ivanescu L.,SIAT Bucharest | Ivanescu L.,Optical Zeitgeist Laboratory
IEEE Network | Year: 2012

This article reviews the main thrusts in next-generation passive optical network 1 and 2 technologies that enable short-term evolutionary and long-term revolutionary upgrades of coexistent gigabit-class PONs, respectively. It provides insight into the key requirements and challenges of the major candidate NG-PON 1&2 architectures such as long-reach XG-PON, wavelength-routing WDM PON, OCDMA and OFDMA PON, and reports on recent progress toward enhanced data and control plane functionalities, including real-time dynamic bandwidth allocation, improved privacy and guaranteed QoS, bandwidth flexibility, as well as cost-effective in-service monitoring techniques for NG-PONs. We then elaborate on converged optical fiber-wireless access networks, which may be viewed as the endgame of broadband access, and explain the inherent coverage and QoS issues of conventional radio-over-fiber networks for distributed wireless MAC protocols and how their limitations can be avoided in so-called radio-and-fiber networks. We explore powerful layer-2 optical-wireless, hierarchical frame aggregation, and network coding techniques that significantly improve the throughput-delay performance, resource utilization efficiency, and survivability of NG-PON and FiWi networks. Finally, we inquire into the opportunities of sensor-enhanced FiWi networks and propose our novel Ãœber-FiWi network, whose potential is demonstrated by studying the beneficial impact of inter-home scheduling of emerging plug-in electric vehicles on the resource management of a more sustainable future smart grid. © 2012 IEEE.


Ghazisaidi N.,Optical Zeitgeist Laboratory
Electronics Letters | Year: 2011

In this reported work, the integration of the EPON and the next-generation WLAN-based mesh network is deployed. The work sheds light on the benefits of extending advanced frame aggregation techniques from next-generation WLANs to EPONs. Proposed and experimentally evaluated are advanced aggregation techniques to improve fibre-wireless (FiWi) network performance for video traffic under realistic wireless channel conditions. It is believed that this is the first time that the use of hierarchical frame aggregation techniques in EPON and FiWi networks has been experimentally examined. © 2011 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

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