Alberta, Canada
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Jian F.,University of Manitoba | Jian F.,OPIsystems Inc. | Larson R.,OPIsystems Inc. | Jayas D.S.,University of Manitoba | White N.D.G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Journal of Stored Products Research | Year: 2011

Development and evaluation of optimum size and number of sample units is required for cost-effective management of stored grain beetles. In this study, we evaluated the sampling parameters and accuracy of insect density detection and estimation, developed the optimum size and number of sample units, and conducted a feasibility study of the insect detection and density estimation. The measured insect densities in 92% of random samples were less than the introduced insect densities and 67.4 ± 10.8% of random samples did not contain adults when the introduced insect density was 0.1 A/kg (adult/kg). If the random sampling technique was used and 15% of the stored wheat bulk was sampled, 72% of determined means of insect densities of the sampling sets were lower than the introduced insect densities. Increasing the size of sample units did not improve the accuracy of the estimation of insect densities; however, it did considerably increase the probability of insect detection when insect densities were lower than 1.0 A/kg. We recommend at least 7 kg per sample unit for insect detection (especially when insect densities < 0.1 A/kg) and the optimum number of sample units with 15 kg grain per unit should be >24 for a fixed precision of 0.35 when insect densities < 0.1 A/kg. This might be a challenge for grain storage practice. Therefore, using sampling technique to estimate insect densities and detect insects at low insect densities (<0.1 A/kg) might not be practicable. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Singh C.B.,OPIsystems Inc. | Singh C.B.,University of Manitoba | Jayas D.S.,University of Manitoba | Larson R.,OPIsystems Inc.
Canadian Biosystems Engineering / Le Genie des biosystems au Canada | Year: 2014

Grains (common term referring to cereal grains, oilseeds, pulses) are usually harvested at high moisture content and then dried to straight grade (dry) or safe storage moisture levels. Grain drying in freestanding, corrugated galvanized steel or welded steel bins using natural air is the most cost effective drying method with optimum grain quality. Adverse weather conditions and inappropriate fan control strategies may result in poor drying, higher drying cost (electricity and fuel), and grain spoilage. Several traditional fan control (continuous ON, only Day ON, only Night ON) and automated fan control (Natural Air Drying (NAD) and Self-Adapting Variable Heat (SAVH)) strategies were investigated using IntegrisPro model software (OPIsystems Inc.


Jian F.,University of Manitoba | Jian F.,OPIsystems Inc. | Larson R.,OPIsystems Inc. | Jayas D.S.,University of Manitoba | White N.D.G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2012

Three-dimensional temporal and spatial distributions of adult Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) at adult densities of 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0 adults per kg grain and at 20 ± 1, 25 ± 1, and 30 ± 1°C were determined in 1.5 t bins filled with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with 11.0 ± 0.8,13.0 ± 0.6, and 15.0 ± 0.5% moisture content (wet basis) or corn (Zea mays L.) with 13.0 ± 0.2% moisture content (wet basis). At each of five sampled locations, grain was separated into three 15-kg vertical layers, and adult numbers in each layer were counted. Inside both corn and wheat, adults did not prefer any location in the same layer except at high introduced insect density in wheat. The adults were recovered from any layer of the corn and >12, 65, and 45% of adults were recovered in the bottom layer of the corn at 20, 25, and 30°C; respectively. However, <1% of adults were recovered in the bottom layer of wheat. Numbers of adults correlated with those in adjacent locations in both vertical and horizontal directions, and the temporal continuous property existed in both wheat and corn. Adults had highly clumped distribution at any grain temperature and moisture content. This aggregation behavior decreased with the increase of adult density and redistribution speed. Grain type influenced their redistribution speed, and this resulted in the different redistribution patterns inside wheat and corn bulks. These characterized distribution patterns could be used to develop sampling plans and integrated pest management programs in stored grain bins. © 2012 Entomological Society of America.


Jian F.,University of Manitoba | Jian F.,OPIsystems Inc. | Larson R.,OPIsystems Inc. | Jayas D.S.,University of Manitoba | White N.D.G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Journal of Stored Products Research | Year: 2012

Three dimensional temporal and spatial distributions of adult . Oryzaephilus surinamensis at densities of 0.1, 1.0, and 5.0 adults/kg wheat (referred to as A/kg) and adult . Sitophilus oryzae at densities of 1.0, 5.0, and 10.0. A/kg were determined in bins filled with 1.5. t wheat having 11.0. ±. 0.8, 13.0. ±. 0.6, or 15.0. ±. 0.5% moisture content at 20. ±. 1, 25. ±. 1 or 30. ±. 1. °C. At each of the five sampled locations, wheat was separated into three 15. kg vertical layers and the number of adults in each layer was counted.Less than 30% of adult . O. surinamensis were recovered in the top layer, while more than 80% of adult . S. oryzae were recovered in the top layer. Adults of . O. surinamensis preferred the center locations in each layer and adults of . S. oryzae preferred the top layer. Densities of both species at adjacent locations in the horizontal direction were autocorrelated with each other. The temporal continuous property might not exist for the adults of . O. surinamensis but exists for the adults of . S. oryzae. Even though both species had aggregated and clumped distribution at any temperature, moisture content and adult density, adults of . O. surinamensis had a more homogeneous distribution than . S. oryzae. These characterized patterns of distribution of adult insects could be used to effectively estimate their density inside stored grain-bins. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


The present invention relates to an apparatus and method that permits a user to detect and report conditions within a column (or quantity which allows for vertical or non-vertical application of sensor cables) of dry, flowable, bulk materials within a storage facility.

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