Opificio Delle Pietre Dure

Firenze, Italy

Opificio Delle Pietre Dure

Firenze, Italy
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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2008-1.1.1 | Award Amount: 9.65M | Year: 2009

CHARISMA is an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative that brings together 22 leading European institutions developing research on artwork materials and their deterioration finalised to the conservation of cultural heritage. The consortium has the objective to optimise the use of infrastructures through a coordinated program of transnational access, joint research and networking activities. Transnational access offers applicants opportunities to exploit the services of three different and complementary groups of facilities, embedded in a multidisciplinary environment involving material science and artwork conservation/restoration. They are: i) a group of six archives containing a huge amount of analytical data, hosted by the most prestigious European museums and institutions developing safeguard and conservation of cultural heritage; ii) a set of advanced portable instrumentation for in-situ non-invasive measurements in the same site where the artworks are located or exhibited; iii) two platforms, one in France and one in Hungary, where large scale facilities are coupled to a set of medium scale instrumentations, open to users for the most advanced studies on artwork materials and their alterations. Research is devoted: i) to improve access to databases exploiting digitalisation of data and their harmonisation; ii) to design and set-up innovative instrumentations, for in-situ 2D and 3D examinations of artworks, and new cleaning techniques; iii) to develop new methodologies for the study of organic materials and their distribution in micro-samples or directly at the surface of the object. Through networking, the way infrastructures are working is improved, harmonising methodologies and best practices in analysis and conservation, pursuing the establishment of a multidisciplinary synergic working method, based on shared use of knowledge and resources.

PubMed | Opificio delle Pietre Dure, CNR Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage, Metropolitan Museum of Art, University of Bologna and Ministry of Cultural Heritage
Type: | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2016

The research complements the complex study carried out to understand the source of brown discolourations of ten marble statues in the Church of Orsanmichele in Florence, Italy. Originally located in exterior niches, the statues were restored to reverse the extensive alterations they had undergone throughout the centuries. One of the major alterations was the application of a dark brown patina that dated just after 1789. After the statues were placed indoors, brownish discolourations started to appear on their surfaces. Cross sections were examined using FTIR mapping and immunological methods. In parallel, the pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS) data already obtained from the statues scrapings were compared with data from aged casein films applied to microscope glass slides and aged milk-treated marble. All the statues had been treated with milk-based substances before the time the bronze patina was applied. The values of temperature and illumination of the room were important factors in the ageing of organic substances and in the formation of calcium oxalates. It is likely that products of thermo-oxidation and photo-oxidation of the oils together with the oxalates caused the darkening. The marble samples corresponded to a Lunense provenance.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: REFLECTIVE-7-2014 | Award Amount: 3.76M | Year: 2015

Scan4Reco will develop a novel portable, integrated and modular solution for customized and thus cost-effective, automatic digitization and analysis of cultural heritage objects (CHOs), even in situ. A multi-sensorial 3D scanning - facilitated by a mechanical arm will collect multi-spectra data and then, a hierarchical approach for 3D reconstruction of CHOs will be applied, enabling multi-layered rendering, advancing both analysis and 3D printing procedures. The goal will be to create highly accurate digital surrogates of CHOs, providing also detailed insight over their surface and also the volumetric structure, material composition and shape/structure of underlying materials, enabling rendering either via visualization techniques or via multi-material 3D printing. Material analyses will be applied, to understand the heterogeneous nature and complex structures of CHOs, to identify the broad and varied classes of materials and to understand their degradation mechanisms over time, deriving context-dependant ageing models per material. Uni-material models will be spatiotemporally simulated, based on environmental phenomena modeling, so as to collectively render imminent degradation effects on the multi-material CHOs, enabling prediction and recreation of their future appearance, as well as automatic restoration, reaching even back to their original shape. Scan4Reco will further facilitate conservation, by indicating spots/segments of cultural objects that are in eminent conservation need and require special care, while suggestions will be provided by a dedicated Decision Support System (DSS), over conservation methods that should be followed. All the above will be validated on real case scenarios involving heterogeneous objects of various sizes and materials, in 2 pilot real-world use cases. To enhance the accessibility of the digitized cultural objects to the scientific community, field experts and the general public, a virtual model of a museum will be launched.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 8.16M | Year: 2015

IPERION CH aims to establish the unique pan-European research infrastructure in Heritage Science by integrating national world-class facilities at research centres, universities and museums. The cross-disciplinary consortium of 23 partners (from 12 Member States and the US) offers access to instruments, methodologies and data for advancing knowledge and innovation in the conservation and restoration of cultural heritage. Fourth in a line of successful projects (CHARISMA-FP7, Eu-ARTECH-FP6 and LabS-TECH network-FP5), IPERION CH widens trans-national access by adding new providers with new expertise and instruments to the three existing complementary platforms ARCHLAB, FIXLAB and MOLAB. The quality of access services will be improved through joint research activities focused on development of new advanced diagnostic techniques and (with DARIAH ERIC) tools for storing and sharing scientific cultural heritage data. Networking activities will (a) promote innovation through technology transfer and dynamic involvement of SMEs; (b) improve access procedures by setting up a coordinated and integrated approach for harmonising and enhancing interoperability among the facilities; (c) identify future scientific challenges, best practices and protocols for measurements; (d) optimise the use of digital tools in Heritage Science. To advance the international role of EU cultural heritage research, IPERION CH will generate social and cultural innovation by training a new generation of researchers and professionals and by worldwide dissemination and communication to diverse audiences. To ensure long-term sustainability, the advanced community of IPERION CH will work towards inclusion in the new ESFRI Roadmap and constitution of a RI with its own EU legal entity (e.g. ERIC). Synergies with national and local bodies, and with managing authorities in charge of ESIF, will expand the scope and impact of IPERION CH in terms of competitiveness, innovation, growth and jobs in ERA.

Troiano F.,University of Milan | Vicini S.,University of Genoa | Gioventu E.,Opificio Delle Pietre Dure | Lorenzi P.F.,Opificio Delle Pietre Dure | And 2 more authors.
Polymer Degradation and Stability | Year: 2014

Synthetic polymers have often been used for the protection and consolidation of cultural heritage. Although it was generally thought that synthetic polymers were not susceptible to deterioration, there are now many papers in the scientific literature demonstrating the opposite. The degradation of synthetic polymers can be due to chemical, physical and biological factors. At present, the traditional way for removing a degraded synthetic polymer is the use of mixtures of solvents that pose some health risks. This work proposes a method to select bacteria able to remove synthetic polymers from cultural heritage surfaces. The ability of five bacteria to attack Paraloid B72, the most commonly used polymer in conservation treatments, was evaluated by optical and scanning electron microscopy observations, weight loss measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetric analysis. Although none of the bacteria were able to attack Paraloid B72, the methodology developed can be applied to select other bacteria with this ability. Therefore the results offer insightful guidance to a better design of bioremoval experiments of synthetic resins used in conservation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pinna D.,Opificio Delle Pietre Dure | Salvadori B.,Opificio Delle Pietre Dure | Salvadori B.,CNR Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage | Porcinai S.,Opificio Delle Pietre Dure
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2011

Soluble salts contaminating limestones and marbles used as building and artistic materials play a relevant role in the deterioration processes of the substrates. Although desalination operations are carried out prior to protection and/or consolidation, a certain amount of salt remains inside the stones. When a surface treatment is chosen, the evaluation of its compatibility with the residual saline content is therefore needed. In the present work, specimens of three lithotypes characterized by a very different porosity - Lecce stone and Anã stone, both highly porous, and the less porous Gioia marble - were contaminated with salt and then treated with two protective products, the organic polydimethylsiloxane and the inorganic ammonium oxalate (NH 4)2(COO)2·H2O. Aim of the research was to select the best application conditions of the two products on salt-laden stone specimens, investigating as well the dependence of the protective action on the procedures adopted to apply the products. The performance of different concentrations and contact times of the products was tested in the laboratory, paying special attention to the possible drawbacks due to the salt. The study was carried out applying different methods: colorimetric measurements before and after the application of the products; water absorption by capillarity to investigate variations in water-interaction features; SEM-EDS analyses to evaluate the distribution of products and salt on the substrates. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Daffara C.,University of Verona | Ambrosini D.,University of L'Aquila | Pezzati L.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Mariotti P.I.,Opificio Delle Pietre Dure
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013

Reflectography in the thermal band Mid-IR 3-5 μm is discussed as a novel tool for the noninvasive analysis of pictorial surface layers in artworks, and its potential is experimentally demonstrated on target models as well as on genuine masterpieces. Reflectography in the Mid-IR is based on the idea of recording the energy reflected by the object, which is strongly related to the surface properties. Therefore, Mid-IR Reflectography has the characteristic feature of providing a good differentiation of surface materials. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

Pinna D.,Opificio delle Pietre Dure | Salvadori B.,Opificio delle Pietre Dure | Salvadori B.,CNR Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage | Galeotti M.,Opificio delle Pietre Dure
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012

In this study, some mixtures of consolidants or water-repellent products and biocides developed to prevent biological growth, were tested over time on three stone substrates with different bioreceptivity. The performance of both traditional (tetraethylorthosilicate, methylethoxy polysiloxane, Paraloid B72, tributyltin oxide, dibutyltin dilaurate) and innovative compounds (copper nanoparticles) was assessed using colour measurements, the water absorption by contact sponge method, and observation under stereo and optical microscopes. The application of the mixtures had also the purpose of controlling re-colonization on stone after a conservation treatment. The study site was the archaeological Area of Fiesole; the mixtures were applied in situ to sandstone, marble and plaster which had been cleaned beforehand. An innovative aspect of the study is that, by using non-invasive methods, it also permitted monitoring the mixtures' effectiveness in preventing biological growth. The monitoring results made it possible to assess the bioreceptivity of the treated stones (sandstone, marble, plaster) over a period of almost three years. The results showed that the mixtures of consolidants or water-repellent products with biocides were effective in preventing biological growth on both a substrate with low bioreceptivity like plaster and a substrate with high bioreceptivity such as marble. The innovative mixture of nano-Cu particles with a water-repellent yielded good results in terms of preventing biological colonization. Moreover, they apparently did not affect the substrates' colour. Mixtures of nano-Cu particles with a consolidant and a water-repellent hold great promise for preventing re-colonization of stone after conservation treatment. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Daffara C.,University of Verona | Parisotto S.,University of Cambridge | Mariotti P.I.,Opificio Delle Pietre Dure
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

Cultural Heritage is discovering how precious is thermal analysis as a tool to improve the restoration, thanks to its ability to inspect hidden details. In this work a novel dual mode imaging approach, based on the integration of thermography and thermal quasi-reflectography (TQR) in the mid-IR is demonstrated for an effective mapping of surface materials and of sub-surface detachments in mural painting. The tool was validated through a unique application: the "Monocromo" by Leonardo da Vinci in Italy. The dual mode acquisition provided two spatially aligned dataset: the TQR image and the thermal sequence. Main steps of the workflow included: 1) TQR analysis to map surface features and 2) to estimate the emissivity; 3) projection of the TQR frame on reference orthophoto and TQR mosaicking; 4) thermography analysis to map detachments; 5) use TQR to solve spatial referencing and mosaicking for the thermal-processed frames. Referencing of thermal images in the visible is a difficult aspect of the thermography technique that the dual mode approach allows to solve in effective way. We finally obtained the TQR and the thermal maps spatially referenced to the mural painting, thus providing the restorer a valuable tool for the restoration of the detachments. © 2015 SPIE.

Salvadori B.,CNR Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage | Pinna D.,Opificio delle Pietre Dure | Porcinai S.,Opificio delle Pietre Dure
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

Salt crystallization is a major damage factor in stone weathering, and the application of inappropriate protective products may amplify its effects. This research focuses on the evaluation of two protective products' performance (organic polydimethylsiloxane and inorganic ammonium oxalate (NH4)2(COO)2·H2O) in the case of a salt load from behind. Experimental laboratory simulations based on salt crystallization cycles and natural weathering in an urban area were carried out. The effects were monitored over time, applying different methods: weight loss evaluation, colorimetric and water absorption by capillarity measurements, stereomicroscope observations, FTIR and SEM-EDS analyses. The results showed minor impact exerted on the short term on stones, particularly those treated with the water repellent, by atmospheric agents compared to salt crystallization. Lithotypes with low salt load (Gioia marble) underwent minor changes than the heavily salt-laden limestones (Lecce and Ançã stones), which were dramatically damaged when treated with polysiloxane. The results suggest that the ammonium oxalate treatment should be preferred to polysiloxane in the presence of soluble salts, even after desalination procedures which might not completely remove them. In addition, the neo-formed calcium oxalate seemed to effectively protect the stone, improving its resistance against salt crystallization without occluding the pores and limiting the superficial erosion caused by atmospheric agents. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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