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Rudrapur, India

Hingorani M.,Ophthalmology | Hanson I.,University of Edinburgh | Van Heyningen V.,University of Edinburgh
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2012

Aniridia is a rare congenital disorder in which there is a variable degree of hypoplasia or the absence of iris tissue associated with multiple other ocular changes, some present from birth and some arising progressively over time. Most cases are associated with dominantly inherited mutations or deletions of the PAX6 gene. This article will review the clinical manifestations, the molecular basis including genotype-phenotype correlations, diagnostic approaches and management of aniridia. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Mihajlovic M.,Bul. Zorana Djindjica 81 | Vlajkovic S.,Bul. Zorana Djindjica 81 | Jovanovic P.,Ophthalmology | Stefanovic V.,Bul. Zorana Djindjica 81
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology | Year: 2012

Primary mucosal melanomas arise from melanocytes located in mucosal membranes lining respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital tract. Although a majority of mucosal melanomas originate from the mucosa of the nasal cavity and accessory sinuses, oral cavity, anorectum, vulva and vagina, they can arise in almost any part of mucosal membranes. Most of mucosal melanomas occur in occult sites, which together with the lack of early and specific signs contribute to late diagnosis, and poor prognosis. Because of their rareness the knowledge about their pathogenesis and risk factors is insufficient, and also there are not well established protocols for staging and treatment of mucosal melanomas. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment, with trends toward more conservative treatment since radical surgery did not show an advantage for survival. Radiotherapy can provide better local control in some locations, but did not show improvement in survival. There is no effective systemic therapy for these aggressive tumors. Compared with cutaneous and ocular melanoma, mucosal melanomas have lowest percent of five-year survival. Recently revealed molecular changes underlying mucosal melanomas offer new hope for development of more effective systemic therapy for mucosal melanomas. Herein we presented a comprehensive review of various locations of primary melanoma along mucosal membranes, their epidemiological and clinical features, and treatment options. We also gave a short comparison of some characteristics of cutaneous and mucosal melanomas.

Griffiths P.G.,Ophthalmology
Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy | Year: 2015

The way citation distortion can create unfounded authority in a subject area is exemplified in the paper "Coloured filters to reduce the symptoms of visual stress in children with reading delay", published early online in the Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy. The diagnostic criteria for visual stress remain unclear, for which reason the prevalence figures should be viewed with scepticism. Randomized controlled trials with placebo control groups consistently show improvements in experimental and control lenses. This letter is a critical review of the evidence cited in the introduction to the paper. In the light of this the most likely explanation for their results is the placebo effect. © 2015 © Informa Healthcare.

Beta-blockers are among the most important groups of drugs for glaucoma therapy. The advantages of beta-blockers are a good efficacy in primary and secondary types of glaucoma, different dosages, clinical experiences over decades, easy use in combination with all other glaucoma drugs, and low costs. Timolol is the most frequently used drug in fixed glaucoma medications. In comparison with other glaucoma drugs, beta-blockers have the most severe systemic side effects and may interact with other systemic medication. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart - New York.

Buchan J.C.,Ophthalmology | Spokes D.M.,St Jamess Hospital
Eye | Year: 2010

Purpose Research abstracts for scientific meetings are usually submitted several months in advance of the meeting. Authors may therefore be tempted to submit an abstract on the basis of the research that is ongoing or not yet fully analysed. This study aims to determine the extent to which submitted abstracts, often disseminated in printed form or online, differ from the research ultimately presented. The risk taken by clinicians considering changes in practice on the basis of presented research who refer back to the printed abstract can be assessed.Methods All posters presented at the Royal College of Ophthalmologists Annual Congress 2007 were compared with abstracts in the Final Programme and Abstracts. Discrepancies were recorded for authorship, title, methodology, number of cases, results and conclusions.Results A total of 171 posters were examined. The title changed in 21% (36/171) and authorship in 25%. The number of cases differed in 22% (number of cases in the poster ranging from less than one quarter to more than triple the number in the abstract). Differences between abstract and poster were found in the methodology of 4%, the results of 11% and conclusions of 5% of studies.Conclusion sScientific meetings provide an opportunity for timely dissemination of new research presented directly to clinicians who may then consider change of practice in response. Caution is advised when referring back to printed records of abstracts, as substantial discrepancies are frequently seen between the published abstract and the final research presented, which, in a minority of cases, may even alter the conclusions of the research. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

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