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Nischler C.,Paracelsus Medical University | Michael R.,Institute Universitari Barraquer | Wintersteller C.,Paracelsus Medical University | Marvan P.,Paracelsus Medical University | And 9 more authors.
European Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2010

PURPOSE. To evaluate the prevalence and association of different types and severities of cataract or pseudophakia with visual impairments in older European drivers. METHODS. In this prospective European multicenter study, 2211 active drivers, 45 years of age and older, participated in an ophthalmologic examination, the measurement of visual functions, and were asked to fill in the NEI-VFQ-25 and another questionnaire about driving habits, driving difficulties, and self-reported accidents. RESULTS. Prevalence of moderate and severe forms of cataract in an active driving population is lower than that in the general population, but could be found in both eyes in 20% (95% confidence interval [CI] 16%-25%) and 17% (95% CI:13%-21%) of subjects 75 years of age and older. In addition, there is a strong relationship between severity of cataract and parameters such as age, visual acuity, intraocular straylight, and contrast sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS. Cataract is not as highly prevalent in the elderly active driving population as in the general population, but is frequently present in drivers over 65 years of age. Lower prevalence of severe bilateral cataracts in countries with mandatory tests of visual functions of drivers suggest that this could be a suitable measure to detect and to reduce the number of active drivers with severe bilateral cataracts. © 2010 Wichtig Editore.

PubMed | Netherlands Ophthalmic Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Ocular immunology and inflammation | Year: 2012

Until now immunosuppressive drugs have mainly been used to treat ocular diseases considered to have an autoimmune pathogenesis. The authors investigated whether cyclosporin A (CsA) could also prevent intraocular inflammation mediated by a foreign antigen. To this purpose, uveitis was induced by injection of human serum albumin (HSA) into the vitreous of rabbits. Subcutaneous injection of CsA prevented the induction of uveitis. Treatment of CsA had to be started at the time of intravitreal antigen injection and did not suppress the reaction when started at the onset of uveitis. Suppression of uveitis correlated with an inhibition of the antibody response against the injected HSA. Animals in which uveitis was suppressed by CsA did not develop a recurrent uveitis after intravenous challenge with the antigen, but did develop a primary inflammatory response after a repeated injection of HSA into the vitreous. The most likely interpretation of the findings presented in this paper are as follows. CsA blocks T helper cells through an inhibition of IL-2 gene activation. This in turn blocks release of other T helper cell cytokines which are essential for the activation of B lymphocytes into antibody producing plasma cells. These observations thus show that CsA can suppress both cell-mediated as well as antibody-mediated models of uveitis.

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