Pittsburgh, PA, United States
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McCaskill-Stevens W.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | McCaskill-Stevens W.,Operations and Biostatistical Centers | Wilson J.W.,Operations and Biostatistical Centers | Wilson J.W.,University of Pittsburgh | And 10 more authors.
Clinical Trials | Year: 2013

Background One of the first chemoprevention trials conducted in the western hemisphere, the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project's (NSABP) Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT), demonstrated the need to evaluate all aspects of recruitment in real time and to implement strategies to enroll racial and ethnic minority women. Purpose The purpose of this report is to review various patient recruitment efforts the NSABP developed to enhance the participation of racial and ethnic minority women in the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) trial and to describe the role that the recruitment process played in the implementation and understanding of breast cancer risk assessment in minority communities. Methods The NSABP STAR trial was a randomized, double-blinded study comparing the use of tamoxifen 20 mg/day to raloxifene 60 mg/day, for a 5-year period, to reduce the risk of developing invasive breast cancer. Eligible postmenopausal women were required to have a 5-year predicted breast cancer risk of 1.66% based on the modified Gail Model. For the current report, eligibility and enrollment data were tabulated by race/ethnicity for women who submitted STAR risk assessment forms (RAFs). Results A total of 184,460 RAFs were received, 145,550 (78.9%) from white women and 38,910 (21.1%) from minority women. Of the latter group, 21,444 (11.6%) were from African Americans/blacks, 7913 (4.5%) from Hispanics/Latinas, and 9553 (5.2%) from other racial or ethnic groups. The percentages of risk-eligible women among African Americans, Hispanics/Latinas, others, and whites were 14.2%, 23.3%, 13.7%, and 57.4%, respectively. Programs targeting minority enrollment submitted large numbers of RAFs, but the eligibility rates of the women referred from those groups tended to be lower than the rates among women referred outside of those programs. The average number of completed risk assessments increased among minority women over the course of the recruitment period compared to those from whites. Limitations We have not addressed all identified barriers to the recruitment of minorities in clinical research. Our risk assessments and recruitment results do not reflect the modified Gail Model for African Americans. Conclusions Recruitment strategies used in STAR for racial and ethnic minorities contributed to doubling the minority enrollment compared to that in the BCPT and increased the awareness of breast cancer risk assessment in minority communities. Incorporation of new information into models to improve the risk estimation of diverse populations should prove beneficial. © The Author(s) 2013.

Russell M.M.,Operations and Biostatistical Centers | Russell M.M.,University of California at Los Angeles | Ganz P.A.,Operations and Biostatistical Centers | Ganz P.A.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 21 more authors.
Annals of Surgery | Year: 2015

Objective: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) R-04 was a randomized controlled trial of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in patients with resectable stage II-III rectal cancer. We hypothesized that patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection (APR) would have a poorer quality of life than those who underwent sphincter-sparing surgery (SSS). Methods: To obtain patient-reported outcomes (PROs) we administered two symptom scales at baseline and 1 year postoperatively: the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (FACT-C) and the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer module for patients with Colorectal Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-CR38). Scoring was stratified by nonrandomly assigned definitive surgery (APR vs SSS). Analyses controlled for baseline scores and stratification factors: age, sex, stage, intended surgery, and randomly assigned chemoradiotherapy. Results: Of 1,608 randomly assigned patients, 987 had data for planned analyses; 62% underwent SSS; 38% underwent APR. FACT-C total and subscale scores were not statistically different by surgery at 1 year. For the EORTC QLQ-CR38 functional scales, APR patients reported worse body image (70.3 vs 77.0, P = 0.0005) at 1 year than did SSS patients. Males undergoing APR reported worse sexual enjoyment (43.7 vs 54.7, P = 0.02) at 1 year than did those undergoing SSS. For the EORTC QLQ-CR38 symptom scale scores, APR patients reported worse micturition symptoms than the SSS group at 1 year (26.9 vs 21.5, P = 0.03). SSS patients reported worse gastrointestinal tract symptoms than did the APR patients (18.9 vs 15.2, P < 0.0001), as well as weight loss (10.1 vs 6.0, P = 0.002). Conclusions: Symptoms and functional problems were detected at 1 year by EORTC QLQ-CR38, reflecting different symptom profiles in patients who underwent APR than those who underwent SSS. Information from these PROs may be useful in counseling patients anticipating surgery for rectal cancer. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Wapnir I.L.,Operations and Biostatistical Centers | Wapnir I.L.,Stanford University | Dignam J.J.,Operations and Biostatistical Centers | Dignam J.J.,University of Chicago | And 16 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2011

Background Ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) is the most common failure event after lumpectomy for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We evaluated invasive IBTR (I-IBTR) and its influence on survival among participants in two National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) randomized trials for DCIS. Methods In the NSABP B-17 trial (accrual period: October 1, 1985, to December 31, 1990), patients with localized DCIS were randomly assigned to the lumpectomy only (LO, n = 403) group or to the lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy (LRT, n = 410) group. In the NSABP B-24 double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial (accrual period: May 9, 1991, to April 13, 1994), all accrued patients were randomly assigned to LRT+ placebo, (n=900) or LRT + tamoxifen (LRT + TAM, n = 899). Endpoints included I-IBTR, DCIS-IBTR, contralateral breast cancers (CBC), overall and breast cancer-specific survival, and survival after I-IBTR. Median follow-up was 207 months for the B-17 trial (N = 813 patients) and 163 months for the B-24 trial (N = 1799 patients). Results Of 490 IBTR events, 263 (53.7%) were invasive. Radiation reduced I-IBTR by 52% in the LRT group compared with LO (B-17, hazard ratio [HR] of risk of I-IBTR = 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.33 to 0.69, P <. 001). LRT + TAM reduced I-IBTR by 32% compared with LRT + placebo (B-24, HR of risk of I-IBTR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.95, P =. 025). The 15-year cumulative incidence of I-IBTR was 19.4% for LO, 8.9% for LRT (B-17), 10.0% for LRT + placebo (B-24), and 8.5% for LRT + TAM. The 15-year cumulative incidence of all contralateral breast cancers was 10.3% for LO, 10.2% for LRT (B-17), 10.8% for LRT + placebo (B-24), and 7.3% for LRT + TAM. I-IBTR was associated with increased mortality risk (HR of death = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.45 to 2.96, P <. 001), whereas recurrence of DCIS was not. Twenty-two of 39 deaths after I-IBTR were attributed to breast cancer. Among all patients (with or without I-IBTR), the 15-year cumulative incidence of breast cancer death was 3.1% for LO, 4.7% for LRT (B-17), 2.7% for LRT + placebo (B-24), and 2.3% for LRT + TAM. Conclusions Although I-IBTR increased the risk for breast cancer-related death, radiation therapy and tamoxifen reduced I-IBTR, and long-term prognosis remained excellent after breast-conserving surgery for DCIS. © 2011 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

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