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Heerlen, Netherlands

Verbeek F.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Schmaltz J.,Open University of the Netherlands
IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems | Year: 2011

The purpose of this comment is to show that Duato's condition for deadlock freedom is only sufficient and not necessary. We propose a fix to keep the condition necessary. The issue is subtle but essential: in a wormhole network worms necessarily do not intersect. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Kirschner P.A.,Open University of the Netherlands
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2015

Facebook® and other Social Network Sites are often seen by educators as multifunctional platforms that can be used for teaching, learning and/or the facilitation of both. One such strand is making use of them as tools/platforms for using and learning through argumentation and discussion. Research on whether this 'promise' is actually achieved - also the research reported on in this Special Issue - does not unequivocally answer the question of whether this is a good idea. This article as one of the two closing articles of this Special Issue discusses Social Networking Sites in general and Facebook specifically with respect to how they are 'normally' used by their members as well as with respect to their social and technical features. Then, in light of this, it discusses the learning results of the four studies. It concludes with a short discussion of whether they are capable of meeting the promise that many think they can. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Van Merrienboer J.J.G.,Maastricht University | Van Merrienboer J.J.G.,Open University of the Netherlands | Sweller J.,University of New South Wales
Medical Education | Year: 2010

Context Cognitive load theory aims to develop instructional design guidelines based on a model of human cognitive architecture. The architecture assumes a limited working memory and an unlimited long-term memory holding cognitive schemas; expertise exclusively comes from knowledge stored as schemas in long-term memory. Learning is described as the construction and automation of such schemas. Three types of cognitive load are distinguished: intrinsic load is a direct function of the complexity of the performed task and the expertise of the learner; extraneous load is a result of superfluous processes that do not directly contribute to learning, and germane load is caused by learning processes that deal with intrinsic cognitive load. Objectives This paper discusses design guidelines that will decrease extraneous load, manage intrinsic load and optimise germane load. Discussion Fifteen design guidelines are discussed. Extraneous load can be reduced by the use of goal-free tasks, worked examples and completion tasks, by integrating different sources of information, using multiple modalities, and by reducing redundancy. Intrinsic load can be managed by simple-to-complex ordering of learning tasks and working from low- to high-fidelity environments. Germane load can be optimised by increasing variability over tasks, applying contextual interference, and evoking self-explanation. The guidelines are also related to the expertise reversal effect, indicating that design guidelines for novice learners are different from guidelines for more experienced learners. Thus, well-designed instruction for novice learners is different from instruction for more experienced learners. Applications in health professional education and current research lines are discussed. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Kirschner P.A.,Open University of the Netherlands | Karpinski A.C.,Ohio State University
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2010

There is much talk of a change in modern youth-often referred to as digital natives or Homo Zappiens-with respect to their ability to simultaneously process multiple channels of information. In other words, kids today can multitask. Unfortunately for proponents of this position, there is much empirical documentation concerning the negative effects of attempting to simultaneously process different streams of information showing that such behavior leads to both increased study time to achieve learning parity and an increase in mistakes while processing information than those who are sequentially or serially processing that same information. This article presents the preliminary results of a descriptive and exploratory survey study involving Facebook use, often carried out simultaneously with other study activities, and its relation to academic performance as measured by self-reported Grade Point Average (GPA) and hours spent studying per week. Results show that Facebook® users reported having lower GPAs and spend fewer hours per week studying than nonusers. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Westera W.,Open University of the Netherlands
Educational Technology and Society | Year: 2011

Contextual learning starts from the premise that learning cannot take place in a vacuum, but should somehow be connected with real world attributes to make sense to learners. Today, digital media tend to bring about new dimensions of context: internet connections and mobile devices enable learners to overcome restrictions of time and location, and neglect the physical boundaries and limitations of the learning environment. This calls for reconsidering contextual learning. This paper takes a theoretical stand by conceptualising the notion of learning context in the light of its virtualised extensions. It explains the historical and pedagogical backgrounds of contextual learning and reviews existing models that deal with context parameters. The paper identifies and discusses the constituting components of context for learning and it demonstrates how attributes of virtual representations affect the nature of context. The overall purpose of the paper is re-establishing the notion of contextual learning in the light of emerging digital media and making explicit the various dimensions involved. © International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS). Source

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