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Milton Keynes, United Kingdom

Open University is also the name of other institutions. See Distance education for a list. The Open University File:Open University coat of arms. pngMotto Learn and LiveEstablished 1969Type PublicChancellor Lord Puttnam of Queensgate CBEVice-Chancellor Martin G. Wikipedia.

Serjeant S.,Open University Milton Keynes
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Bright submillimetre-selected galaxies have been found to be a rich source of strong gravitational lenses. However, strong gravitational lensing of extended sources leads inevitably to differential magnification. In this paper I quantify the effect of differential magnification on simulated far-infrared and submillimetre surveys of strong gravitational lenses, using a foreground population of Navarro-Frenk-White plus de Vaucouleurs' density profiles, with a model source resembling the Cosmic Eyelash and quasi-stellar object J1148+5251. Some emission-line diagnostics are surprisingly unaffected by differential magnification effects: for example, the bolometric fractions of [Cii] 158μm and CO(J = 1 - 0), often used to infer densities and ionization parameters, have typical differential magnification effects that are smaller than the measurement errors. However, the CO ladder itself is significantly affected. Far-infrared lensed galaxy surveys (e.g. at 60μm) strongly select for high-redshift galaxies with caustics close to active galactic nuclei (AGNs), boosting the apparent bolometric contribution of AGN. The lens configuration of IRAS F10214+4724 is naturally explained in this context. Conversely, submillimetre/millimetre-wave surveys (e.g. 500-1400 μm) strongly select for caustics close to knots of star formation boosting the latter's bolometric fraction. In general, estimates of bolometric fractions from spectral energy distributions of strongly lensed infrared galaxies are so unreliable as to be useless, unless a lens mass model is available to correct for differential magnification. © 2012 The Author Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2012 RAS. Source

Saffrey M.J.,Open University Milton Keynes
Developmental Biology

The intrinsic neurons of the gut, enteric neurons, have an essential role in gastrointestinal functions. The enteric nervous system is plastic and continues to undergo changes throughout life, as the gut grows and responds to dietary and other environmental changes. Detailed analysis of changes in the ENS during ageing suggests that enteric neurons are more vulnerable to age-related degeneration and cell death than neurons in other parts of the nervous system, although there is considerable variation in the extent and time course of age-related enteric neuronal loss reported in different studies. Specific neuronal subpopulations, particularly cholinergic myenteric neurons, may be more vulnerable than others to age-associated loss or damage. Enteric degeneration and other age-related neuronal changes may contribute to gastrointestinal dysfunction that is common in the elderly population. Evidence suggests that caloric restriction protects against age-associated loss of enteric neurons, but recent advances in the understanding of the effects of the microbiota and the complex interactions between enteric ganglion cells, mucosal immune system and intestinal epithelium indicate that other factors may well influence ageing of enteric neurons. Much remains to be understood about the mechanisms of neuronal loss and damage in the gut, although there is evidence that reactive oxygen species, neurotrophic factor dysregulation and/or activation of a senescence associated phenotype may be involved. To date, there is no evidence for ongoing neurogenesis that might replace dying neurons in the ageing gut, although small local sites of neurogenesis would be difficult to detect. Finally, despite the considerable evidence for enteric neurodegeneration during ageing, and evidence for some physiological changes in animal models, the ageing gut appears to maintain its function remarkably well in animals that exhibit major neuronal loss, indicating that the ENS has considerable functional reserve. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Muncie J.,Open University Milton Keynes
British Journal of Criminology

Surprisingly, there has been little or no systematic research to date that has explored the significance of UK devolution for youth justice policy and practice. This article explores the extent of differential justice in the United Kingdom, particularly as it is expressed in the myriad action plans, criminal justice reviews, frameworks for action, delivery plans and offending strategies that have surfaced since 1998. In particular, the article considers how far policy convergence and divergence are reflected through the discourses of risk, welfare, restoration and children's rights in the four administrations of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. For comparative criminology, the United Kingdom offers a unique opportunity to explore how international and national pressures towards convergence and/or divergence can be challenged, rebranded, versioned, adapted or resisted at sub-national and local levels. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Centre for Crime and Justice Studies (ISTD). Source

Warren C.J.,Open University Milton Keynes
Solid Earth

The formation and exhumation of high and ultra-high-pressure, (U)HP, rocks of crustal origin appears to be ubiquitous during Phanerozoic plate subduction and continental collision events. Exhumation of (U)HP material has been shown in some orogens to have occurred only once, during a single short-lived event; in other cases exhumation appears to have occurred multiple discrete times or during a single, long-lived, protracted event. It is becoming increasingly clear that no single exhumation mechanism dominates in any particular tectonic environment, and the mechanism may change in time and space within the same subduction zone. Subduction zone style and internal force balance change in both time and space, responding to changes in width, steepness, composition of subducting material and velocity of subduction. In order for continental crust, which is relatively buoyant compared to the mantle even when metamorphosed to (U)HP assemblages, to be subducted to (U)HP conditions, it must remain attached to a stronger and denser substrate. Buoyancy and external tectonic forces drive exhumation, although the changing spatial and temporal dominance of different driving forces still remains unclear. Exhumation may involve whole-scale detachment of the terrane from the subducting slab followed by exhumation within a subduction channel (perhaps during continued subduction) or a reversal in motion of the entire plate (eduction) following the removal of a lower part of the subducting slab. Weakening mechanisms that may be responsible for the detachment of deeply subducted crust from its stronger, denser substrate include strain weakening, hydration, melting, grain size reduction and the development of foliation. These may act locally to form narrow high-strain shear zones separating stronger, less-strained crust or may act on the bulk of the subducted material, allowing whole-scale flow. Metamorphic reactions, metastability and the composition of the subducted crust all affect buoyancy and overall strength. Future research directions include identifying temporal and spatial changes in exhumation mechanisms within different tectonic environments, and determining the factors that influence those changes. © 2013 Author(s). Source

This paper takes its cue from recent work in nonhuman geographies that has sought to think about the relationship between the human and nonhuman topologically. While nonhuman geographies have well-developed analyses of the topologies of regions and networks, recent work is supplementing these with other topological understandings. Yet, this work can be taken further. To this end, this paper explores the relationship between the human and nonhuman, through a discussion of animals, affects and psychic space. It offers a topological reading of two of Freud's case studies: Emmy von N. and the Wolfman. The paper highlights the twists and turns of affect and psychic space in these cases. It shows that the difference between the human and the nonhuman can be radically uncertain at the very same time that human distinctiveness is being given certain forms. Using the topological figure of the Möbius strip, this paper shows that, while animals and humans might appear on the same topological surface, distinctions between them are not collapsed or fused or flattened. This has implications for how humans are understood to be entangled in nonhuman worlds; entanglements that, it is argued, are always filtered through the beastly mind. © 2013 Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers). Source

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