Heerlen, Netherlands
Heerlen, Netherlands

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van Lankveld G.,Technical University of Delft | van Lankveld G.,Open University in the Netherlands | Sehic E.,ProRail | Lo J.C.,Technical University of Delft | And 2 more authors.
Simulation and Gaming | Year: 2017

Background. The Dutch railway company ProRail is performing large-scale capacity upgrades to their infrastructure network. As part of these upgrades, ProRail uses gaming simulations to help prepare train traffic controllers for new infrastructure situations. Researching the validity of these gaming simulations is essential, since the conclusions drawn from gaming simulation use may result in decisions with large financial and social impact for ProRail and Dutch train passengers. Aim. In this article, we aim to investigate the validity of the gaming simulations for training traffic controllers for new situations in rail infrastructure. We also aim to contribute to the discussion on the minimum level of fidelity required to develop and conduct gaming simulations in a valid way. Method. We investigate the validity by using training sessions in conjunction with questionnaires. We based the approach and questionnaires on the earlier work of Raser. Results. Our results show that the validity of the gaming simulation ranges from medium to good. They also show that while the fidelity of the gaming simulation is not like the real-world operating conditions, this does not reduce validity to low levels. Conclusions. We conclude that the gaming simulation used in this study was of medium to good validity. We also conclude that maximum fidelity is not required in order to run a valid gaming simulation session. © 2016, © The Author(s) 2016.


Jaarsma T.,Open University in The Netherlands | Jarodzka H.,Open University in The Netherlands | Nap M.,Atrium Medical | Van Merrienboer J.J.G.,Open University in The Netherlands | And 2 more authors.
Medical Education | Year: 2014

Objectives: Although the obvious goal of training in clinical pathology is to bring forth capable diagnosticians, developmental stages and their characteristics are unknown. This study therefore aims to find expertise-related differences in the processing of histopathological slides using a combination of eye tracking data and verbal data. Methods: Participants in this study were 13 clinical pathologists (experts), 12 pathology residents (intermediates) and 13 medical students (novices). They diagnosed 10 microscopic images of colon tissue for 2 seconds. Eye movements, the given diagnoses, and the vocabulary used in post hoc verbal explanations were registered. Eye movements were analysed according to changes over trial time and the processing of diagnostically relevant areas. The content analysis of verbal data was based on a categorisation system developed from the literature. Results: Although experts and intermediates showed equal levels of diagnostic accuracy, their visual and cognitive processing differed. Whereas experts relied on their first findings and checked the image further for other abnormalities, intermediates tended to double-check their first findings. In their explanations, experts focused on the typicality of the tissue, whereas intermediates mainly mentioned many specific pathologies. Novices looked less often at the relevant areas and were incomplete, incorrect and inconclusive in their explanations. Their diagnostic accuracy was correspondingly poor. Conclusions: This study indicates that in the case of intermediates and experts, different visual and cognitive strategies can result in equal levels of diagnostic accuracy. Lessons for training underline the relevance of the distinction between normal and abnormal tissue for novices, especially when the mental rotation of 2-D images is required. Intermediates need to be trained to see deviations in abnormalities. Feedback and an educational design that is specific to these developmental stages might improve training. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Corbalan G.,Netherlands Institute for Curriculum Development | Kester L.,Open University in the Netherlands | Van Merrienboer J.J.G.,Maastricht University
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2011

Surface task features are more salient than structural task features and thus easier to recognize for novices. It is predicted that the more salient the task features the better learners can choose personally relevant and varied tasks, which enhances learning transfer. To investigate this prediction, a 2 × 2 factorial experiment with 72 participants studied the effects of control over tasks that differ in their surface features (learner, program) and in their structural features (learner, program). Learner control over the selection of tasks with salient surface features enables learners to select personally relevant and varied tasks. This is believed to yield higher effectiveness (i.e., higher near and far transfer test performance) as well as higher efficiency (i.e., higher transfer test performance combined with lower associated mental effort). Learner control over the selection of tasks with non-salient structural features does not enable learners to select personally relevant and varied tasks and is therefore not expected to yield beneficial effects on learning. The results show positive effects of learner control over the selection of tasks with salient surface features for efficiency on the far transfer test but not for effectiveness. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Spanjers I.A.E.,Open University in the Netherlands | Spanjers I.A.E.,Maastricht University | Wouters P.,University Utrecht | Van Gog T.,Open University in the Netherlands | And 3 more authors.
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2011

Many animations impose a high cognitive load due to the transience of information, which often hampers learning. Segmentation, that is presenting animations in pieces (i.e., segments), has been proposed as a means to reduce this high cognitive load. The expertise reversal effect shows, however, that design measures that have a positive effect on cognitive load and learning for students with lower levels of prior knowledge, might not be effective, or might even have a negative effect on cognitive load and learning for students with higher levels of prior knowledge. This experiment with animated worked-out examples showed an expertise reversal effect of segmentation: segmented animations were more efficient than continuous animations (i.e., equal test performance with lower investment of mental effort during learning) for students with lower levels of prior knowledge, but not for students with higher levels of prior knowledge. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Borner D.,Open University in the Netherlands | Storm J.,Open University in the Netherlands | Kalz M.,Open University in the Netherlands | Specht M.,Open University in the Netherlands
International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation | Year: 2012

The paper presents a project that sets up to make energy consumption data visible and accessible to employees by providing dynamic situated consumption feedback at the workplace. Therefore a supporting infrastructure as well as two example applications have been implemented and evaluated. The resulting prototype fosters a ubiquitous learning process among the employees with the goal to change their consumption behaviour as well as the attitudes towards energy conservation. The paper presents the approach, the requirements, the infrastructure and applications, as well as the evaluation results of the conducted informative study, comparative study, user evaluation, and design study. © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Sie R.L.L.,Open University in the Netherlands | Bitter-Rijpkema M.,Open University in the Netherlands | Sloep P.B.,Open University in the Netherlands
Journal of Universal Computer Science | Year: 2011

Several studies have shown that connecting to people in other networks foster creativity and innovation. However, it is often difficult to tell what the prospective value of such alliances is. Cooperative game theory offers an a priori estimation of the value of future collaborations. We present an agent-based social simulation approach to recommending valuable peers in networked innovation. Results indicate that power as such does not lead to a winning coalition in networked innovation. The recommendation proved to be successful for low-strength agents, which connected to high-strength agents in their network. Future work includes tests in real-life and other recommendation strategies. © J.UCS.


Rongen A.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Robroek S.J.W.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | van der Heijden B.I.J.M.,Radboud University Nijmegen | van der Heijden B.I.J.M.,Open University in the Netherlands | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Nursing Management | Year: 2014

Aim: To investigate how work-related characteristics and work ability influence nursing staff decisions to change employer or leave the profession. Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have indicated that decreased work ability and unfavourable work-related characteristics are important determinants for the intention to leave the profession among nursing staff. Methods: A 1-year longitudinal study, using data from the European Nurses' Early Exit Study. The study population consisted of 9927 (66%) members of the eligible nursing staff of which 345 left their current employer. Work-related characteristics, work ability and employment status were assessed by questionnaires. Results: Nursing staff with a low work ability were more likely to either change employer or leave the profession. Among nursing staff with a low work ability the risk of changing employer increased significantly with unfavourable work-related characteristics. However, among nursing staff with a good work ability the risk of changing employer barely changed with unfavourable work-related characteristics. Conclusion: The negative effects of decreased work ability on changing employer and leaving the profession are partly counterbalanced by favourable psychological and physical work-related characteristics. Implications for nursing management: Managers should implement strategies that focus on promoting the work ability of nursing staff in combination with improving work-related characteristics in order to prevent unnecessary changes of employment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Sie R.L.L.,Open University in the Netherlands | Bitter-Rijpkema M.,Open University in the Netherlands | Sloep P.B.,Open University in the Netherlands
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2010

Psychological literature shows that people do not always make rational choices with respect to whom to collaborate with. Providing the value of candidate connections may help them choosing the right people to connect with in a network. This paper presents a model about coalitions in creativity that will be used to generate content-based and knowledge-based recommendations of candidate coalitions.


De Koning B.B.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Tabbers H.K.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Rikers R.M.J.P.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Paas F.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Paas F.,Open University in the Netherlands
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2011

Research has shown that guiding learners' attention in animations by cueing does not necessarily improve conceptual understanding. This study investigated whether the number of elements that are presented per unit of time influences the effectiveness of cueing by showing a cued or an uncued animation about the cardiovascular system at a high or at a low speed. It was hypothesized that cueing would be most helpful for learning when the animation was shown at a high rather than at a low speed. Unexpectedly, students showed equal performances on comprehension and transfer tests irrespective of cueing and the animation's speed. However, the low speed groups invested more mental effort to obtain this performance than the high speed groups. The findings and their implications for the design of animations are discussed in terms of cognitive load theory. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Borner D.,Open University in the Netherlands | Kalz M.,Open University in the Netherlands | Specht M.,Open University in the Netherlands
International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning | Year: 2011

With a focus on the situated support of informal and non-formal learning scenarios in ubiquitous learning environments, the presented paper outlines the authors' vision of ambient learning displays - enabling learners to view, access, and interact with contextualised digital content presented in an ambient way. The vision is based on a detailed exploration of the characteristics of ubiquitous learning and a deduction of informational, interactional, and instructional aspects to focus on. Towards the vision essential research questions and objectives as well as a conceptual framework that acquires, channels, and delivers the information framed in the learning process are presented. To deliver scientific insights into the authentic learning support in informal and non-formal learning situations and to provide suggestions for the future design of ambient systems for learning the paper concludes with a research agenda proposing a research project including a discussion of related issues and challenges. Copyright © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

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