Robinson N.,University of Colorado at Boulder |
Armstead S.,University of Colorado at Boulder |
Armstead S.,Open Mountain |
Deane Bowers M.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata | Year: 2012
We compared variation in butterfly communities across 3 years at six different habitats in a temperate ecosystem near Boulder, Colorado, USA. These habitats were classified by the local Open Space consortium as Grasslands, Tallgrass, Foothills Grasslands, Foothills Riparian, Plains Riparian, and Montane Woodland. Rainfall and temperature varied considerably during these years. We surveyed butterflies using the Pollard-Yates method of invertebrate sampling and compared abundance, species richness, and diversity across habitats and years. Communities were most influenced by habitat, with all three quantitative measures varying significantly across habitats but only two measures showing variation across years. Among habitats, butterfly abundance was higher in Plains Riparian sites than in Montane Woodland or Grassland sites, though diversity was lowest in Plains Riparian areas. Butterfly species richness was higher in Foothills Riparian sites than it was in all but one other habitat (Tallgrass). Among years, butterfly abundance and species richness were lower during the year of least rainfall and highest temperatures, suggesting a substantial impact of the hot, dry conditions. Across habitats and years, butterfly abundance was consistently high at Plains Riparian and Foothills Riparian sites, and richness and diversity were consistently high in Foothills Riparian areas. These two habitats may be highly suitable for butterflies in this ecosystem, regardless of weather conditions. Generally low abundance and species richness in Montane Woodlands sites, particularly in 2002, suggested low suitability of the habitat to butterflies in this ecosystem, and this may be especially important during drought-like conditions. Finally, to examine the effect that the presence of the very abundant non-native species Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) has on these communities, we re-analyzed the data in the absence of this species. Excluding P. rapae dramatically reduced variation of both butterfly abundance and diversity across habitats, highlighting the importance of considering community membership in analyses like ours. © 2012 The Netherlands Entomological Society.
Martin F.,Rey Juan Carlos University |
Aguero C.E.,Open Mountain |
Canas J.M.,Rey Juan Carlos University
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2016
In the robotics field, behavior-based architectures are software systems that define how complex robot behaviors are decomposed into single units, how they access sensors and motors, and the mechanisms for communication, monitoring, and setup. This paper describes the main ideas of a simple, efficient, and scalable software architecture for robotic applications. Using a convenient design of the basic building blocks and their interaction, developers can face complex applications without any limitations. This architecture has proven to be convenient for different applications like robot soccer and therapy for Alzheimer patients. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.
Biggs G.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology |
Rusu R.B.,Open Perception |
Gerkey B.,Open Mountain |
Vaughan R.,Simon Fraser University
IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine | Year: 2013
When robot researchers talk about robot middle ware, inevitably Player will enter the discussion. This piece of software and its related tools have become one of the most popular software tools in robotics research. Its range of hardware support and the flexibility it offers users, as well as its ease of use and shallow learning curve, have ensured its success. © 2013 IEEE.
Dulberger J.,Colorado State University |
Hobbs N.T.,Colorado State University |
Swanson H.M.,Open Mountain |
Bishop C.J.,Wildlife Research Center |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2010
Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), accelerates mortality and in so doing has the potential to influence population dynamics. Although effects on mule deer survival are clear, how CWD affects recruitment is less certain. We studied how prion infection influenced the number of offspring raised to weaning per adult (≥2 yr old) female mule deer and subsequently the estimated growth rate (λ) of an infected deer herd. Infected and presumably uninfected radio-collared female deer were observed with their fawns in late summer (August - September) during three consecutive years (2006 - 2008) in the Table Mesa area of Boulder, Colorado, USA. We counted the number of fawns accompanying each female, then used a fully Bayesian model to estimate recruitment by infected and uninfected females and the effect of the disease on X. On average, infected females weaned 0.95 fawns (95% credible interval=0.56 - 1.43) whereas uninfected females weaned 1.34 fawns (95% credible interval= 1.09 -1.61); the probability that uninfected females weaned more fawns than infected females was 0.93). We used estimates of prevalence to weight recruitment and survival parameters in the transition matrix of a three-age, single-sex matrix model and then used the matrix to calculate effects of CWD on λ. When effects of CWD on both survival and recruitment were included, the modeled λ was 0.97 (95% credible interval = 0.82 - 1.09). Effects of disease on λ were mediated almost entirely by elevated mortality of infected animals. We conclude that although CWD may affect mule deer recruitment, these effects seem to be sufficiently small that they can be omitted in estimating the influences of CWD on population growth rate. © Wildlife Disease Association 2010.
Open Mountain | Date: 2012-08-13
Bicycles; sports bicycles; mountain bikes; bicycle parts, namely, forks, seat posts, cranks, handlebars, stems, wheels, saddles, derailleur gears, brakes, pedals, tires, gear controls, aerodynamic handlebars, frames, special baskets for bicycles, luggage racks, steering devices, wheel rims, spokes, inner tubes, valves, bands for wheel hubs, chains, nets, bells, stands, direction indicators, gears; structural parts for all the aforesaid. Clothing, namely, coats, jackets, sweaters, shirts, undershirts, sport shirts, t-shirts, pants, underpants, sport pants, trousers, suits, shorts, scarves, socks, swimming suits, bikinis, dresses, skirts, pullovers, blouses; sportswear, namely, jogging suits; footwear; headgear, namely, hats and caps. Bringing together for the benefit of others of various goods, excluding the transportation thereof, enabling the consumer to view and purchase them conveniently in the field of bicycles as well as parts and accessories thereof, sports bicycles as well as parts and accessories thereof, mountain bikes as well as parts and accessories thereof, clothing, footwear and headgear; online retail store services in the field of bicycles as well as parts and accessories thereof, sports bicycles as well as parts and accessories thereof, mountain bikes as well as parts and accessories thereof, clothing, footwear and headgear; retail store services in the field of bicycles as well as parts and accessories thereof, sports bicycles as well as parts and accessories thereof, mountain bikes as well as parts and accessories thereof, clothing, footwear and headgear; import-export agency services in the field of bicycles as well as parts and accessories thereof, sports bicycles as well as parts and accessories thereof, mountain bikes as well as parts and accessories thereof, clothing, footwear and headgear; business consulting and commercial advice services in the field of bicycles as well as parts and accessories thereof, sports bicycles as well as parts and accessories thereof, mountain bikes as well as parts and accessories thereof, clothing, footwear and headgear.