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Feng R.,Agro Environmental Protection Institute | Feng R.,Open Key Laboratory of Agro environment | Qiu W.,New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research | Lian F.,Agro Environmental Protection Institute | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2013

This study was conducted to determine the optimal planting mode for pakchoi (Brassica rapa chinensis) in Cd-contaminated soil to reduce the accumulation of Cd in the edible parts while maintaining yields. Four additives (red mud (RM), silicon calcium fertiliser (SC), spodium (SP) and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP)), two foliar fertilisers (Ca and Zn) and two varieties of pakchoi (Aijiaohuang (AJ) and Baixuegongzhu (BX)) were used in this study. The results show that the addition of SC and RM had an effect, but the other additives did not appear to increase the biomasses of AJ and BX. In some cases, the growth responses of AJ and BX to the same treatment were different. Extra additions of Ca or Zn to additive-treated pakchoi did not help the additives stimulate the growth of AJ and BX, except for SC-treated AJ and BX and SP-treated AJ. The SC and CMP additives significantly reduced the available Cd concentration in both the AJ soil and the BX soil; however, they did not significantly decrease the Cd concentration in the aboveground parts of AJ and BX. The RM treatments (for both levels) and some treatments containing SP reduced the available Cd concentration in the soils and reduced the accumulation of Cd in the two pakchoi varieties. Additions of Ca or Zn fertiliser significantly reduced the Cd concentration in the aboveground parts of AJ and BX. However, when Ca or Zn was sprayed on the additive-treated AJ and BX, they did not help the additives reduce the Cd accumulation in the aboveground parts of AJ and BX, except for the additive CMP. This study shows that RM may be an optimal amendment to reduce the accumulation of Cd in the edible part of pakchoi while simultaneously maintaining yields. The utilisation of Ca or Zn as a foliar fertiliser to additive-treated pakchoi showed positive effects only under some conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Sun J.,Jiangsu University | Wang R.,Agro Environmental Protection Institute | Wang R.,Open Key Laboratory of Agro environment | Liu Z.,Agro Environmental Protection Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

This study aims to determine the spatial characteristics and real-time kinetics of cadmium transport in hyperaccumulator (HE) and non hyperaccumulator (NHE) ecotypes of Sedum alfredii using a non-invasive Cd-selective microelectrode. Compared with the NHE S. alfredii, the HE S. alfredii showed a higher Cd influx in the root apical region and root hair cells, as well as a significantly higher Cd efflux in the leaf petiole after root pre-treatment with cadmium chloride (CdCl2). Thus, HE S. alfredii has a higher capability for the translocation of absorbed Cd to the shoot. Moreover, the mesophyll tissues, isolated mesophyll protoplasts, and intact vacuoles from HE S. alfredii exhibited an instantaneous influx of Cd in response to CdCl2 treatment with mean rates that are markedly higher than those from NHE S. alfredii. Therefore, the hyper-accumulating trait of HE S. alfredii is characterized by the rapid Cd uptake in specific root regions, including the apical region and root hair cells, as well as by the rapid root-to-shoot translocation and the highly efficient Cd-permeable transport system in the plasma membrane and mesophyll cell tonoplast. We suggest that the non-invasive Cd-selective microelectrode is an excellent method with a high degree of spatial resolution for the study of Cd transport at the tissue, cellular, and sub-cellular levels in plants. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. Source

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