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« Proterra begins first autonomous bus program in the US | Main | Groupe PSA and nuTonomy form strategic partnership to test fully autonomous vehicles in Singapore » The Volkswagen Group and operators of CNG filling stations and gas networks in Germany have signed a joint declaration of intent, committing themselves to the extension of CNG mobility. The signers, together with other vehicle manufacturers, are working to grow the CNG vehicle fleet in Germany tenfold to 1 million vehicles by 2015. Further, the initiative aims to increase the filling station network in Germany from 900 locations today to 2,000 by 2025. The expansion will also be promoted in other European countries. Its short-term availability makes natural gas an important component of our overall strategy for eco-friendly mobility of the future. Owing to the addition of methane from renewable resources, the propellant can gradually become even greener. This makes it an important constituent of the energy revolution in the transport sector in the long run, too. —Dr Ulrich Eichhorn, head of research and development at Volkswagen The statement was signed by Volkswagen Group, E.ON Gas Mobil GmbH, Gazprom NGV Europe GmbH, Gazu GmbH, ONTRAS Gastransport GmbH, Open Grid Europe GmbH, Pitpoint B.V. and TOTAL Deutschland GmbH. The partners aim to win even more companies over to the collaboration.

Pfetsch M.E.,TU Darmstadt | Fugenschuh A.,Helmut Schmidt University | Geissler B.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Geissler N.,Open Grid Europe GmbH | And 17 more authors.
Optimization Methods and Software | Year: 2015

In this article, we investigate methods to solve a fundamental task in gas transportation, namely the validation of nomination problem: given a gas transmission network consisting of passive pipelines and active, controllable elements and given an amount of gas at every entry and exit point of the network, find operational settings for all active elements such that there exists a network state meeting all physical, technical, and legal constraints. We describe a two-stage approach to solve the resulting complex and numerically difficult non-convex mixed-integer nonlinear feasibility problem. The first phase consists of four distinct algorithms applying mixed-integer linear, mixed-integer nonlinear, nonlinear, and methods for complementarity constraints to compute possible settings for the discrete decisions. The second phase employs a precise continuous nonlinear programming model of the gas network. Using this setup, we are able to compute high-quality solutions to real-world industrial instances that are significantly larger than networks that have appeared in the mathematical programming literature before. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Schmitt G.,Institute for Maintenance and Corrosion Protection Technology gGmbH | Forster R.,Open Grid Europe GmbH
NACE - International Corrosion Conference Series | Year: 2015

Magnetite as the major part of black powder encountered in transmission pipelines all over the world can form galvanic elements with the pipeline steel, provided a liquid film with some ionic conductivity is present. This galvanic element can exist also in the absence of water, provided other compounds are present to assure some ionic conductivity, e.g. organic acids like formic acid, acetic acid, acetates, or ammonium compounds from inhibitor packages. In this galvanic element iron forms the anode and magnetite the surface for the cathodic reaction. The element currents are in the μA range and increase with increasing ionic conductivity, with increasing temperature, with increasing oxygen partial pressure, and specifically with the ratio of cathodic and anodic surface A pronounced increase of the element current was observed at oxygen partial pressures as low as 200 mbar in the gas. Element currents measured under pipeline relevant filming conditions can cause iron dissolution rates well over the target penetration rate of 0.1 mm/y. © 2015 by Nace International.

Schmitt G.,Institute for Maintenance and Corrosion Protection Technologies gGmbH | Schoeneich H.-G.,Open Grid Europe GmbH | Siegmund G.,ExxonMobil
NACE - International Corrosion Conference Series | Year: 2015

The paper reports on the influence of alternating current (AC) on the hydrogen uptake of X80 pipeline steel cathodically polarized with a constant current density of -100 A/m2 in different media (0.2 M Na2SO4, 0.2 M and 0.8 M NaOH, 0.2 M NaCl/MgCl2/CaCl2, artificial soil solution) at room temperature. Under these conditions AC current densities of 30, 100 and 500 A/m2 were applied. While the Devanathan-Stachurski method was not successful to indicate AC effects on hydrogen permeation, the volumetric quantification of hydrogen permeation proved its feasibility. In the absence of promoters (e.g. arsenite) no hydrogen permeation was measured in all media regardless of the presence of AC (30 to 500 A/m2). Hydrogen permeation started only after addition of a promotor. In NaOH solution containing arsenite as promotor a small AC effect could be detected which, however, led to a small reduction of the hydrogen permeation rate. The effect was more visible at high AC current densities (e.g. 500 A/m2). As a side effect, intergranular 'cathodic' iron dissolution with formation of intergranular pits was found in promotor-free 0.2 M NaCl/MgCl2/CaCl2 solution. Within 24 h pit depths of 50 μm (some grain layers) could be formed in combination with Fe-, Ca- and Mg-containing deposits exhibiting filigree structures. In the presence of AC the formation of such deposits and scales was retarded. The mechanism of this 'cathodic' iron dissolution is discussed. During the experimental investigations no indications were found that AC can favor hydrogen related failure mechanisms at high strength pipeline steels under cathodic corrosion protection. © 2015 by Nace International.

Janssen S.,Open Grid Europe GmbH | Patzold P.,Open Grid Europe GmbH | Emde A.,Open Grid Europe GmbH | Kurz R.,Solar Turbines Inc.
Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo | Year: 2014

The Waidhaus compressor station in Germany is a key compressor station for the supply of Natural Gas from Russia into the German and the European market. The required flexibility, together with the goal of a small environmental footprint, has led to some unique, but widely applicable solutions. Since this head compressor station of the MEGAL pipeline system is of highest importance for the European gas supply, requirements for high availability and reliability of the equipment are significant. The paper consists of two parts: In the first part it describes the challenges of installing new equipment in an existing compressor station, details the characteristics of the installed equipment, and, in particular, discusses the steps that have been taken to assure the required high availability, high reliability, and high flexibility. In the second part, the acceptance test is described, taking into account site specific limitations, and how a highly accurate site test can be executed. The tested unit was accepted based on the acceptance test described. The methodology is useful for the conduct and execution of site performance tests. The paper thus provides insight into the decision making, installation, and acceptance process for the specific situation of a strategically important brownfield1 compressor station. Copyright © 2014 by ASME and Solar Turbines Incorporated.

Benten R.,Open Grid Europe GmbH | Steiner K.,E.ON | Uhl P.,HGC Hamburg Gas Consult | Dirk Weissenfels W.,E.ON
GWF, Gas - Erdgas | Year: 2011

Local biogas production and supply via natural gas networks gains increasing market potential. It modifies gas deliveries by adding carbon neutral biomethan. Pressure regulating and metering stations enable network access thereby connecting biogas production to the supply infrastructure. Standarized network access solutions provide advantages to grid operators and traders. It limits cost and guaranties transparent project courses. Furthermore, proven technology secures reliability of supply. E.ON Ruhrgas solutions are described, regulatory terms and conditions of network access discussed, and advantages to operators and traders exemplified.

Stratmann J.,Open Grid Europe GmbH
Clarion Evaluation, Rehabilitation, and Repair of Pipelines Conference (Berlin, 10/20-21/2010) Proceedings | Year: 2010

Pipeline-inspection tools based on ultrasonic measuring techniques are frequently used for the assessment of oil pipeline integrity. Recently, the inspection of gas pipelines with ultrasonic devices has been conducted successfully by completely filling the pipeline with liquid (e.g., water) before the inspection. As an alternative, a short section (batch) of liquid may be run through the pipe in order to avoid completely filling it. Pigs separate the liquid from the surrounding gas in the pipeline, and the measurement device is kept within the liquid-filled section. Batches may, however, assume considerable velocities where there are large slopes along the path of the pipeline and this may influence the probability of detection and, more practically, it constitutes a risk of pipeline damage if velocities become too high. The focus of this paper is a method of calculating the batch velocity and predicting water batch movements in pipes, as well as other practical aspects.

Schmaing B.,Open Grid Europe GmbH | Schafer D.,Open Grid Europe GmbH | Grolms K.,Open Grid Europe GmbH | Strehlau C.,Open Grid Europe GmbH | Vathroder G.,Open Grid Europe GmbH
GWF, Gas - Erdgas | Year: 2011

New requirements have to be met for the transmission and further processing of measured data relevant to billing because of a changed framework on the gas market. A project has therefore been initiated to convert measured data polling at the gas pressure regulating and metering stations of Open Grid Europe and shift from analog to IP technology. The aim is to enhance the quality and quantity of data polling while maintaining the proven system of remote meter readout. The project started in 2010 and envisages a two-year period for modifying data polling at Open Grid Europe for 1,200 measurement points in line with the concept described. Half of the work covered by the project has already been implemented successfully.

An efficient, self-contained compressor system has been developed that meets the need for a mobile natural gas transfer unit to evacuate pipelines and complies with applicable European regulations and road traffic licensing rules. This mobile compressor has been in operation at Open Grid Europe since mid-2010. Last year alone, it was used to transfer 1.5 million mn3 of gas in the Open Grid Europe pipeline network in an environmentally friendly manner. This means that emissions of 24,000 t of CO2 equivalent were avoided (pic-ture 1).

Open Grid Europe is Germany's leading natural gas transmission company. Open Grid Europe plans, constructs, operates and monitors the country's largest natural gas transmission system, with a total length of about 12,000 km. The natural gas transmission within the OGE pipeline system will be realized by the use of compressor stations. On the compressor station in Köln-Porz a gas turbine was upgraded in 2010 using OGE developed technology, which is suitable to meet tighter environmental regulations. Using the example of the gas turbine Frame 3R DLE the following article shows how an oldie is kept fit for the future.

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