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In war, in the event of the imminent capture of a city, the government/military structure of the nation that controls the city will sometimes declare it an open city, thus announcing that they have abandoned all defensive efforts.The attacking armies of the opposing military will then be expected not to bomb or otherwise attack the city, but simply to march in. The concept aims at protecting the historic landmarks and civilians who dwell in the city from an unnecessary battle.Attacking forces do not always respect the declaration of an "open city." Defensive forces will use it as a political tactic as well.In some cases, the declaration of a city to be "open" is made by a side which is on the verge of defeat and surrender; in other cases, those making such a declaration are willing and able to fight on, but prefer that the specific city be spared.Several cities were declared open during World War II: Brussels in 1940 Oslo in 1940 Paris in 1940, from which the French Government fled after it became apparent that they could not defend it Belgrade in April 1941 Penang in December 1941, after the British retreated to Singapore Manila in 1941, which the American military abandoned during the Japanese invasion. Rome on 14 August 1943, which the defending Italian forces declared unilaterally to be an "open city" following the cessation of Allied bombing. This applied when under attack by the Germans; subsequently Allied forces entered Rome in June 1944 and retreating German forces also declared Florence and Chieti on 24 March 1944 "open cities". Athens on 11 October 1944, which was declared an open city by the Germans.↑ ↑ 2.0 2.1 ↑ Wikipedia.


Tuan L.T.,Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City | Ngoc L.T.B.,Open City
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing | Year: 2014

Purpose: Clinical governance effectiveness is built on the responsibility of clinical members towards other stakeholders inside and outside the hospital. Through the testing of the hypotheses on the relationships between clinical governance and its antecedents, this paper aims to corroborate that emotional intelligence is the first layer of bricks, ethics and trust the second layer, and corporate social responsibility (CSR) the third layer of the entire architecture of clinical governance. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 409 responses in completed form returned from self-administered structured questionnaires dispatched to 705 clinical staff members underwent the structural equation modeling (SEM)-based analysis. Findings: Emotional intelligence among clinicians, as the data reveals, is the lever for ethics of care and knowledge-based or identity-based trust to thrive in hospitals, which in turn activate ethical CSR in clinical activities. Ethical CSR in clinical deeds will heighten clinical governance effectiveness in hospitals. Originality/value: The journey to test research hypotheses has built layer-by-layer of CSR-based model of clinical governance in which high concentration of emotional intelligence among clinical members in the hospital catalyzes ethics of care and knowledge-based or identity-based trust, without which, CSR initiatives to cultivate ethical values cannot be successfully implemented to optimize clinical governance effectiveness in Vietnam-based hospitals. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source


Baumgartner U.,Ekolibrium | Nguyen T.H.,Open City
Environment, Development and Sustainability | Year: 2016

Eco-certification has been used as a tool to mitigate adverse effects of aquaculture production and might thus be understood as a private approach to sustainable ecosystem management. In production forests in Ca Mau, Vietnam, where mangrove have suffered degradation despite legal protection, different projects have targeted reversing this trend by means of private certification using the ‘Naturland’ organic standard as a reference. So far the outcomes have, however, been proven unsatisfactory. With the aim to better understand the reasons for these poor outcomes, a survey of forty households was conducted in a production forest in Rach Goc commune, Ngoc Hien District. We evaluated farmers’ perceptions on mangrove management, the drivers guiding shrimp farming, and whether there was a difference between participants and non-participants in a former ‘Naturland’ organic project. To complement the survey, a range of stakeholders involved in shrimp value chains were interviewed to better understand the terms and benefits of certification. The results of this survey suggested that, when applied to shrimp–mangrove farming systems in production forests in Ca Mau, ‘eco-certification’ and associated benefits are not very satisfactory. The survey results revealed that certified farms do not show significant differences to non-certified farms in terms of social and environmental benefits. As far as the implementation process was concerned, the survey results showed that a failure to integrate local farmers as participants consequently resulted in households becoming ‘objects’ for certification and not project partners with equal weight and power. It appears that rather than being a tool for improvement, ‘Naturland’ certification for shrimp–mangrove farming systems in Ca Mau’s production forests has become an end in itself. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht Source


Le C.V.,International University | Tran T.D.,Open City | Pham D.C.,Institute of Mechanics
International Journal of Mechanical Sciences | Year: 2016

Different plastic collapse modes may have different effects on the overall behaviour and load-bearing capacity of an elastic-plastic structure subjected to variable loads, and they may even be determined by different material plastic constants (for general plastic hardening materials). Both lower bound static and upper bound reduced kinematic approaches have been implemented with appropriate finite element realizations and mathematical programming techniques to study the nonshakedown modes for elastic plastic bodies under cyclic loads. For sufficiently complex structure and loading program, it has been firstly demonstrated that an elastic-plastic body may fail by rotating plasticity collapse rather than the simpler alternating plasticity one among other possible modes. That and other results also lead to interesting problems for further studies. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Pham V.P.H.,Open City | Usaha S.,Burapha University
Computer Assisted Language Learning | Year: 2015

Few studies have been conducted to see how blog-based peer response helps students to improve their writing revisions. The present study investigates peer comments made through blogs, the nature of the comments and their areas of focus, and the ratios of students incorporating suggestions made through blog-based comments into revisions of their writing. Thirty-two second-year English major students taking a 15-week academic writing course at Nong Lam University in Ho Chi Minh City were selected to participate in this study. The students posted their writings on blogs and, through blog comments, also provided and received suggestions for revision. The results indicated that though the comments on global areas were greater than those on local areas, the qualified comments (revision-oriented comments) were not guaranteed to be greater in the global area. The total revisions made during blog-based peer response were greater than the total revision-oriented comments delivered by peers. In addition, revisions at lower levels such as “word” or “phrase” needed less help from peers, whereas those at higher levels such as “sentence” or “paragraph” needed more help from peers. The study brings illumination for instructors who are considering whether to apply blogs to their writing classes. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Source


Zak D.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Wagner C.,Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research | Payer B.,Open City | Augustin J.,Leibniz Center for Agricultural Landscape Research | Gelbrecht J.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries
Ecological Applications | Year: 2010

Rewetting of drained fens is necessary to stop further soil degradation and to reestablish important ecological functions. However, substantial changes of peat characteristics in the upper soil layers, due to drainage and land use, could counteract their recovery as nutrient-poor systems for an unknown period. We assessed the importance of altered peat properties, such as the degree of peat decomposition and the amount of redox-sensitive phosphorus (P) compounds, for P mobilization in different degraded fens. An experimental design involving 63 intact peat cores from fens with varying drainage and land-use histories was developed to quantify the mobilization of P, as well as that of iron (Fe), ammonium, carbon dioxide, and methane, all indicators of organic-matter decomposition and/or Preleasing processes. We found that net P release rates in peat cores with highly decomposed peat (range: 0.1-52.3 mg P.m -2d-1) were significantly correlated to the amount of P bound to redox-sensitive compounds and the molar Fe:P as well as A1:P ratios of peat. We conclude that the following general rules apply for P mobilization in rewetted fens: (1) elevated levels of P release rates and P concentrations in. pore water up to three orders of magnitude larger than, under natural reference conditions can only be expected for rewetted fens whose surface soil layers consist of highly decomposed peat; (2) peat characteristics, such as the amount of P bound to redox-sensitive Fe(III) compounds (positive correlation) and molar ratios of Fe:P or A1:P (negative correlations), explain the high range of P release rates; and (3) a critical P export to adjacent lakes or rivers can only be expected if molar Fe:P ratios of highly decomposed peat are less than 10. © 2010 by the Ecological Society America. Source

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