Chicago, IL, United States
Chicago, IL, United States

In war, in the event of the imminent capture of a city, the government/military structure of the nation that controls the city will sometimes declare it an open city, thus announcing that they have abandoned all defensive efforts.The attacking armies of the opposing military will then be expected not to bomb or otherwise attack the city, but simply to march in. The concept aims at protecting the historic landmarks and civilians who dwell in the city from an unnecessary battle.Attacking forces do not always respect the declaration of an "open city." Defensive forces will use it as a political tactic as well.In some cases, the declaration of a city to be "open" is made by a side which is on the verge of defeat and surrender; in other cases, those making such a declaration are willing and able to fight on, but prefer that the specific city be spared.Several cities were declared open during World War II: Brussels in 1940 Oslo in 1940 Paris in 1940, from which the French Government fled after it became apparent that they could not defend it Belgrade in April 1941 Penang in December 1941, after the British retreated to Singapore Manila in 1941, which the American military abandoned during the Japanese invasion. Rome on 14 August 1943, which the defending Italian forces declared unilaterally to be an "open city" following the cessation of Allied bombing. This applied when under attack by the Germans; subsequently Allied forces entered Rome in June 1944 and retreating German forces also declared Florence and Chieti on 24 March 1944 "open cities". Athens on 11 October 1944, which was declared an open city by the Germans.↑ ↑ 2.0 2.1 ↑ Wikipedia.

Time filter

Source Type

Phong T.N.,Chulalongkorn University | Phuc V.N.,Open City | Quyen T.T.H.L.N.,Open City
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2017

Materials selection justifies a large proportion of engineering and construction project budget. Therefore, selecting an appropriate material supplier is a critical economic decision, and it plays a significant role in the success of engineering and construction firms. Traditional supplier evaluating decision-making methods are usually based on subjective opinions of experts, resulting in irrational and inappropriate decisions. This paper proposes a quantitative model for material supplier selection by using the Group Fuzzy Analytic Network Process (GFANP) and Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) methods. The material suppliers are ranked by using the TOPSIS method. The proposed decision-making model can provide a robust approach for solving material supplier selection problems. © 2017 Trans Tech Publications.

Quoc N.B.,Nong Lam University | Chau N.N.B.,Open City
Current Protein and Peptide Science | Year: 2017

The plant cell wall is always the physical barrier in which phytopathogenic fungi must overcome by producing an array of cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) that allow them to invade host tissues through the degradation of cell wall components of plants. Magnaporthe oryzae is a causal agent of blast disease, one of the most devastating disease in rice resulting significant crop losses worldwide. The penetration of plant cuticle and cell walls induced by infection structures of M. oryzae has been known to be acquired by the association of turgor pressure and CWDEs for successful infection of M. oryzae. In this review, we focus on recent discoveries of M. oryzae CWDEs, gene regulation and their biological roles as fungal virulence factors and elicitors of host defense response leading to plant resistance against fungal pathogens. © 2017 Bentham Science Publishers.

Baumgartner U.,Ekolibrium | Nguyen T.H.,Open City
Environment, Development and Sustainability | Year: 2016

Eco-certification has been used as a tool to mitigate adverse effects of aquaculture production and might thus be understood as a private approach to sustainable ecosystem management. In production forests in Ca Mau, Vietnam, where mangrove have suffered degradation despite legal protection, different projects have targeted reversing this trend by means of private certification using the ‘Naturland’ organic standard as a reference. So far the outcomes have, however, been proven unsatisfactory. With the aim to better understand the reasons for these poor outcomes, a survey of forty households was conducted in a production forest in Rach Goc commune, Ngoc Hien District. We evaluated farmers’ perceptions on mangrove management, the drivers guiding shrimp farming, and whether there was a difference between participants and non-participants in a former ‘Naturland’ organic project. To complement the survey, a range of stakeholders involved in shrimp value chains were interviewed to better understand the terms and benefits of certification. The results of this survey suggested that, when applied to shrimp–mangrove farming systems in production forests in Ca Mau, ‘eco-certification’ and associated benefits are not very satisfactory. The survey results revealed that certified farms do not show significant differences to non-certified farms in terms of social and environmental benefits. As far as the implementation process was concerned, the survey results showed that a failure to integrate local farmers as participants consequently resulted in households becoming ‘objects’ for certification and not project partners with equal weight and power. It appears that rather than being a tool for improvement, ‘Naturland’ certification for shrimp–mangrove farming systems in Ca Mau’s production forests has become an end in itself. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Pham V.P.H.,Open City | Usaha S.,Burapha University
Computer Assisted Language Learning | Year: 2015

Few studies have been conducted to see how blog-based peer response helps students to improve their writing revisions. The present study investigates peer comments made through blogs, the nature of the comments and their areas of focus, and the ratios of students incorporating suggestions made through blog-based comments into revisions of their writing. Thirty-two second-year English major students taking a 15-week academic writing course at Nong Lam University in Ho Chi Minh City were selected to participate in this study. The students posted their writings on blogs and, through blog comments, also provided and received suggestions for revision. The results indicated that though the comments on global areas were greater than those on local areas, the qualified comments (revision-oriented comments) were not guaranteed to be greater in the global area. The total revisions made during blog-based peer response were greater than the total revision-oriented comments delivered by peers. In addition, revisions at lower levels such as “word” or “phrase” needed less help from peers, whereas those at higher levels such as “sentence” or “paragraph” needed more help from peers. The study brings illumination for instructors who are considering whether to apply blogs to their writing classes. © 2015 Taylor & Francis

Tuan L.T.,Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City | Ngoc L.T.B.,Open City
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing | Year: 2014

Purpose: Clinical governance effectiveness is built on the responsibility of clinical members towards other stakeholders inside and outside the hospital. Through the testing of the hypotheses on the relationships between clinical governance and its antecedents, this paper aims to corroborate that emotional intelligence is the first layer of bricks, ethics and trust the second layer, and corporate social responsibility (CSR) the third layer of the entire architecture of clinical governance. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 409 responses in completed form returned from self-administered structured questionnaires dispatched to 705 clinical staff members underwent the structural equation modeling (SEM)-based analysis. Findings: Emotional intelligence among clinicians, as the data reveals, is the lever for ethics of care and knowledge-based or identity-based trust to thrive in hospitals, which in turn activate ethical CSR in clinical activities. Ethical CSR in clinical deeds will heighten clinical governance effectiveness in hospitals. Originality/value: The journey to test research hypotheses has built layer-by-layer of CSR-based model of clinical governance in which high concentration of emotional intelligence among clinical members in the hospital catalyzes ethics of care and knowledge-based or identity-based trust, without which, CSR initiatives to cultivate ethical values cannot be successfully implemented to optimize clinical governance effectiveness in Vietnam-based hospitals. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Sant E.D.,Open City | Simonds G.E.,Open City | Ramsey R.D.,Utah State University | Larsen R.T.,Brigham Young University
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2014

Rangelands occupy a large portion of the Earth's land surface and provide many ecosystem services to human populations around the world. Increasingly, however, the ability of rangelands to continue providing these services is challenged by anthropogenic influence. There is an urgent need to monitor changes in rangelands through time and across large geographic areas. Current field-based methods used to assess and monitor rangelands are limited because of their inability to account for spatial and temporal variation. An alternative approach is presented to assess rangelands using high resolution imagery as enhanced ground samples and multi-spatial remote sensing imagery to quickly, cheaply, and effectively map basic land cover components. High-resolution, ground-based natural color vertical photography captures, in space and time, percent cover of vegetative and abiotic components at the plot level. This imagery maintains a visual history of percent cover allowing other investigators the ability to repeat the observation or use other sampling techniques to extract improved or additional information. These plot-based measures are then linked to airborne or satellite acquired imagery allowing for extrapolation of ground measurements across large landscapes. Linking plot-based measures to remotely sensed imagery can allow for documentation of change across the past 30 years utilizing Landsat imagery. Our process was applied to a sagebrush-steppe landscape in northern Utah with promising results. Extrapolation of percent vegetation cover data extracted from ground-based natural color vertical photography to 1 m resolution Ikonos imagery using regression tree analysis resulted in an overall R2 value of 0.81 while an extrapolation to 30 m Landsat Thematic Mapper resulted in an R2 of 0.90 using a 5-fold cross-validation. A comparison between independently acquired ground measurements from multiple time intervals showed a moderately strong correlation of R2 = 0.65 for Landsat Thematic Mapper. This technique has great potential to place land cover change and rangeland health in a contextual perspective that has not been available before. In this way, past management practices can be evaluated for their effectiveness in altering basic cover components of rangelands. With this hindsight, improved management prescriptions can be developed providing a valuable tool in assessing public land grazing allotments for renewal or habitat quality for sensitive wildlife species like greater sage-grouse. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Tran T.D.,Open City | Le C.V.,Ho Chi Minh City International University
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering | Year: 2015

The extended finite element method is extended to allow computation of the limit load of cracked structures. In the paper, it is demonstrated that the linear elastic tip enrichment basis with and without radial term √r may be used in the framework of limit analysis, but the six-function enrichment basis based on the well-known Hutchinson-Rice-Rosengren asymptotic fields appears to be the best. The discrete kinematic formulation is cast in the form of a second-order cone problem, which can be solved using highly efficient interior-point solvers. Finally, the proposed numerical procedure is applied to various benchmark problems, showing that the present results are in good agreement with those in the literature. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Cao T.H.,Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology | Nguyen H.,Open City
International Journal of Uncertainty, Fuzziness and Knowlege-Based Systems | Year: 2011

Fuzzy set theory and probability theory are complementary for soft computing, in particular object-oriented systems with imprecise and uncertain object properties. However, current fuzzy object-oriented data models are mainly based on fuzzy set theory or possibility theory, and lack of a rigorous algebra for querying and managing uncertain and fuzzy object bases. In this paper, we develop an object base model that incorporates both fuzzy set values and probability degrees to handle imprecision and uncertainty. A probabilistic interpretation of relations on fuzzy sets is introduced as a formal basis to coherently unify the two types of measures into a common framework. The model accommodates both class attributes, representing declarative object properties, and class methods, representing procedural object properties. Two levels of property uncertainty are taken into account, one of which is value uncertainty of a definite property and the other is applicability uncertainty of the property itself. The syntax and semantics of the selection and other main data operations on the proposed object base model are formally defined as a full-fledged algebra. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Kusakabe E.,Open City
Local Environment | Year: 2012

There have been few empirical studies investigating whether and how social capital (SC) relates to better achievement of sustainability goals and, if so, how. This research investigates the roles three types of SC, namely, bonding, bridging, and bracing SC, play in achieving sustainable development (SD), using a case study of the Japanese region to explore the process of SC accumulation leading to collective action. The research question as to whether SC accumulation makes a difference in the progress towards sustainability is addressed qualitatively and quantitatively using a case study, and network and regression analysis; in particular the impact and functions of bracing SC are closely investigated. The study concludes that SC accumulation can indeed make a difference in achieving sustainability and that bracing SC plays an essential role in expediting the processes of goal sharing and resource flow by connecting various networks across sectors and scales, thereby making collective action possible. These findings suggest that creating an environment in which the generation of all three types of SC is encouraged may help local governments to achieve their desired policy goals for SD. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

News Article | October 28, 2016

NEW YORK, NY--(Marketwired - Oct 27, 2016) -  Park IP Translations, a Welocalize company and leader in legal language services, is sponsoring and exhibiting the American Intellectual Property Law Association (AIPLA) Annual Meeting, taking place at the Marriott Wardman Park Hotel in Washington, DC, October 27-29, 2016. Park IP Translations is a world leader in intellectual property (IP) and patent translation and filing services, providing legal language services in more than 175 languages. At the AIPLA Annual Meeting, the Park IP Translations team of experts will meet delegates at booth #27 to discuss the best practices and challenges associated with managing global IP and patent portfolios across multiple geographies and jurisdictions. "Outsourcing IP and patent translations to legal language experts improves the quality of global legal work and ultimately, reduces risk for all parties," said Erin Wynn, chief customer officer at Park IP Translations, a Welocalize company. "At this year's AIPLA Annual Meeting, we will be discussing how Park IP Translations can help attorneys navigate multilingual IP and patent activity that best protect their global IP assets." Park IP Translations will hold their traditional annual scotch tasting evening event, on Thursday, October 27 starting at 10:00 PM at Open City, 2331 Calvert St, NW, Washington, DC. This special event also features live music by Welocalize CEO Smith Yewell and his band, Fuzzy Match. The event is open to all AIPLA attendees. For more information and to register for AIPLA Scotch Tasting featuring Fuzzy Match, visit AIPLA is one of the largest associations of IP attorneys in the world, working with members on cutting-edge issues of IP advocacy and education. The AIPLA Annual Meeting is an opportunity for anyone involved in the IP industry to connect and learn and the latest developments in the IP industry. Headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, AIPLA has more than 14,000 members, constituting attorneys in private and corporate practice, government service and academia. For more information visit About Park IP Translations - Park IP Translations, a Welocalize company, provides translation, litigation and filing solutions for patent and legal professionals. We protect our clients' most valued assets and global brands in nearly every jurisdiction in the world. We provide complete translation services in more than 175 language and filing-ready documentation into more than 60 countries. We are a leader in patent prosecution and validation, litigation languages services, E-Discovery translation and document review, patent translation and filing. We also provide general legal services for all types of corporate and legal documents. Park IP delivers the highest quality translations as a result of our ISO 9001:2015 certification. AIPLA: The American Intellectual Property Law Association (AIPLA), formed in 1897, is a national bar association made up of primarily lawyers in private and corporate practice, in government service, and in the academic community. AIPLA members represent individuals, companies and institutions and are directly or indirectly involved in the practice of patent, trademark, copyright and unfair competition law, as well as other fields of law affecting intellectual property.

Loading Open City collaborators
Loading Open City collaborators