Saint Petersburg, Russia
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Pakhomov R.A.,OOO Institute Gipronikel' | Starykh R.V.,Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University
Russian Metallurgy (Metally) | Year: 2014

The laws of gas reduction of oxidized nickel ores (ONOs) are studied. The theoretical prerequisites of the selective reduction of ONO nickel, which are based on the difference between the oxygen partial pressures over the NiO-Ni and FeO-Fe systems, are discussed. The effect of the oxygen partial pressure during reducing roasting of ONOs of ferruginous and magnesia types on the reduction parameters and the quality of the ferronickel formed upon subsequent melting of cinders is experimentally investigated. The optimum conditions of preliminary gas reduction of ONOs are determined. Melting of the cinder of reducing roasting leads to the formation of nickel-rich ferronickel (20–50 wt % Ni for various types of ores) upon the extraction of nickel into ferronickel of >95%, which substantially exceeds the parameters of the existing commercial processes. © 2014, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Kalinkin P.N.,Novosibirsk State University | Kovalenko O.N.,RAS Boreskov Institute of Catalysis | Platonov O.I.,OOO Institute Gipronikel
Catalysis in Industry | Year: 2011

Change in the activity of AO-NKZ-2 (AO-MK-2) alumina catalyst in the Claus reaction and transformations of carbonyl sulfide during operation over four years in the Claus reactor at the Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Combine's coke-oven gas purification shop were studied at an average temperature of 245-260°C and a volume velocity of ~2000 h-1. The rate constants of the Claus reactions and COS transformation were determined, and the changes in the active surface area of the catalyst were investigated. Fundamental discrepancies in the rate and deactivation mechanism of the Claus catalysts were revealed with respect to the reactions of the conversion of hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011.


Pigarev S.P.,OOO Institute Gipronikel | Tsymbulov L.B.,OOO Institute Gipronikel | Istomin S.A.,RAS Institute of Metallurgy | Selivanov E.N.,RAS Institute of Metallurgy | Chumarev V.M.,RAS Institute of Metallurgy
Russian Metallurgy (Metally) | Year: 2013

The viscosities of the slags that form during the continuous converting of copper mattes and concentrates into blister copper are determined. The compositions of SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-FeOx-Cu2O-NiO slag melts are varied over a wide range of (Fe + Ni) concentrations (25.5-40.2 wt %) and ratios SiO2/CaO (0.25-3.9) and (Fe)/(Cu + Ni) (0.4-1.6). The slag viscosity is measured by a vibrational method in the temperature range 1050-1450°C. The viscosity of a homogeneous melt is shown to be 0.5-2.0 P, and it increases sharply below the primary solidification temperature. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Tsymbulov L.B.,OOO Institute Gipronikel | Pigarev S.P.,OOO Institute Gipronikel | Selivanov E.N.,RAS Institute of Metallurgy | Chumarev V.M.,RAS Institute of Metallurgy
Russian Metallurgy (Metally) | Year: 2011

The structure and liquidus temperature of the SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-FeOx-Cu2O-NiO slags that form during continuous converting of copper mattes and concentrates into blister copper in a Vanyukov furnace used as a melting unit are studied. The slag melt compositions are varied over wide limits of the total (Fe + Ni) and (SiO2 + CaO) concentrations by changing the consumption of fluxing components. The slags are investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron-probe microanalysis. The liquidus temperatures of the slags are determined by differential thermal analysis. It is found that, as the consumption of fluxing components changes, the concentration of iron-nickel spinels based on trevorite NiFe2O4 changes substantially and the forms of copper change in the slags. The results obtained are used to recommend the optimum consumption of fluxing components for the process of continuous converting. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Pigarev S.P.,OOO Institute Gipronikel | Tsymbulov L.B.,OOO Institute Gipronikel | Selivanov E.N.,RAS Institute of Metallurgy | Chumarev V.M.,RAS Institute of Metallurgy
Russian Metallurgy (Metally) | Year: 2012

The structure and liquidus temperature of the SiO 2-CaO-Al 2O 3-FeO x-Cu 2O-NiO slags that form during continuous converting of copper mattes and concentrates into blister copper are analyzed. The slag melt compositions are varied over a wide SiO 2/CaO range. The slags are studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron-probe microanalysis. The liquidus temperature of the slags is determined by differential thermal analysis. It is found that, depending on the SiO 2/CaO ratio, the structure and liquidus temperature of the slags change and the forms of copper in a slag also change. The SiO 2/CaO range in a slag is recommended for the process of continuous converting of a copper nickel-containing sulfide raw materials. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Popov V.A.,OOO Institute Gipronikel | Seregin P.S.,OOO Institute Gipronikel | Tsemekhman L.S.,OOO Institute Gipronikel | Barsegyan V.V.,OAO GMK Norilskii Nikel
Russian Metallurgy (Metally) | Year: 2011

The reducing roasting of the titanium-containing concentrates of deposit Tsentral'noe is studied over a wide range of operating conditions to develop a new technology of processing to exclude melting in an electric furnace. The roasting products are investigated by scanning electron microscopy and electron-probe microanalysis. The structure of the forming cinder and its phase composition are considered as functions of the reducing agent content and the roasting temperature. Optimum roasting conditions are proposed for roasting used as the main stage of the proposed technology. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Savinova Y.A.,OOO Institute Gipronikel | Popov V.A.,OOO Institute Gipronikel | Portov A.B.,OOO Institute Gipronikel | Tsemekhman L.S.,OOO Institute Gipronikel
Russian Metallurgy (Metally) | Year: 2014

Three series of experiments on oxidizing roasting of sulfide polymetallic concentrates in a laboratory fluidized bed furnace are performed to develop an economically efficient technology of processing the sulfide polymetallic ore concentrate of the Artem'evsk deposit (Kazakhstan). The composition of the initial concentrate and the products of its oxidizing roasting are studied. The mineral composition of the concentrate is determined, and it demonstrates that this material tends toward intense spinel formation under oxidizing roasting conditions. The main structural constituents of the cinder are found to be sulfate-spinel conglomerates and oxide and sulfide particles. The possible ways of formation of these constituents are discussed using the obtained experimental data, the existing theoretical concepts, and the results of thermodynamic analysis. The calculations are performed using the FactSage software package and database. The formation of oxide and spinel components are found to be caused by both direct oxidation of sulfide minerals (primary processes) and the interaction of primary products with sulfuric anhydride and each other (secondary processes). In turn, all sulfates in the cinder are the products of secondary processes, and primary sulfate formation does not take place in roasting under the chosen conditions. Spinels cannot be completely removed from the cinder using their sulfation because of predominant consumption of sulfuric anhydride for interaction with oxide components. The optimum roasting conditions that ensure the formation of the best cinder for subsequent hydrometallurgical processing are chosen on the basis of the obtained data. The degree of extraction of nonferrous metals achieved upon leaching of the cinder is 94-96 wt %. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Sineva S.I.,OOO Institute Gipronikel | Starykh R.V.,OOO Institute Gipronikel | Zakhryapin S.B.,OOO Institute Gipronikel
Russian Metallurgy (Metally) | Year: 2010

This work is a continuation of the cycle of studies dealing with the phase transformations occurring in the ternary systems bounding the quaternary Fe-Ni-Cu-S system. A meltability diagram is plotted for the ternary Cu-Ni-S sulfide system using differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and electron-probe microanalysis, and miscibility gap boundaries and the positions of conodes in the miscibility gap region of this system are determined. A solidus surface is plotted for the Cu-Ni-S system for the first time. © 2010 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Starykh R.V.,OOO Institute Gipronikel | Sineva S.I.,OOO Institute Gipronikel | Zakhryapin S.B.,OOO Institute Gipronikel
Russian Metallurgy (Metally) | Year: 2010

The phase transformations in the ternary sulfide Cu-Fe-S system are analyzed, and the positions and temperatures of the nonvariant equilibrium points and the monovariant equilibrium lines in this system are determined. Experimental results obtained by differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and electron-probe microanalysis are used to plot projections of the liquidus and solidus surfaces on a concentration triangle, and the positions of the miscibility gap boundaries in the Cu-Fe-S system are determined. The composition and temperature of the critical miscibility gap point are determined, and conode directions are indicated. This work is the final part of a series of works dealing with the phase transformations occurring in the ternary systems that bound the quaternary Fe-Ni-Cu-S system. © 2010 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Starykh R.V.,OOO Institute Gipronikel | Sineva S.I.,OOO Institute Gipronikel
Russian Metallurgy (Metally) | Year: 2012

A deep analysis and mutual fitting of the data on all ternary boundary systems have resulted in obtaining information about the phase transformations in high-sulfur Fe-Ni-S compositions and in augmentation of data on the projections of the solidus surfaces in the Fe-Ni-Cu and Fe-Ni-S systems. The studies are performed using differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and electron-probe microanalysis. The investigation carried out is a continuation of the cycle of studies dealing with an experimental construction of the phase diagrams of the ternary systems bounding the quaternary Fe-Ni-Cu-S system. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

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