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Smadi H.,University of Guelph | Smadi H.,McMaster University | Sargeant J.M.,University of Guelph | Sargeant J.M.,Ontario Veterinary College
Risk Analysis | Year: 2013

The current quantitative risk assessment model followed the framework proposed by the Codex Alimentarius to provide an estimate of the risk of human salmonellosis due to consumption of chicken breasts which were bought from Canadian retail stores and prepared in Canadian domestic kitchens. The model simulated the level of Salmonella contamination on chicken breasts throughout the retail-to-table pathway. The model used Canadian input parameter values, where available, to represent risk of salmonellosis. From retail until consumption, changes in the concentration of Salmonella on each chicken breast were modeled using equations for growth and inactivation. The model predicted an average of 318 cases of salmonellosis per 100,000 consumers per year. Potential reasons for this overestimation were discussed. A sensitivity analysis showed that concentration of Salmonella on chicken breasts at retail and food hygienic practices in private kitchens such as cross-contamination due to not washing cutting boards (or utensils) and hands after handling raw meat along with inadequate cooking contributed most significantly to the risk of human salmonellosis. The outcome from this model emphasizes that responsibility for protection from Salmonella hazard on chicken breasts is a shared responsibility. Data needed for a comprehensive Canadian Salmonella risk assessment were identified for future research. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis. Source


Veterinary graduates require effective communication skills training to successfully transition from university into practice. Although the literature has supported the need for veterinary student communication skills training programs, there is minimal research using learning theory to design programs and explore students' perceptions of such programs. This study investigated veterinary students' perceptions of (I) their communication skills and (2) the usefulness of a communication skills training program designed with Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory (ELT) as a framework and implemented in a primary care setting. Twenty-nine final-year veterinary students from the Ontario Veterinary College attended a 3-Week communication skills training rotation. Pre- and post-training surveys explored their communication objectives, confidence in their communication skills, and the usefulness of specific communication training strategies. The results indicated that both before and after training, students were most confident in building rapport, displaying empathy, recognizing how bonded a client is with his or her pet, and listening. They were least confident in managing clients who were angry or not happy with the charges and who monopolized the appointment. Emotionally laden topics, such as breaking bad news and managing euthanasia discussions, were also identified as challenging and in need of improvement Interactive small-group discussions and review of video-recorded authentic client appointments were most valuable for their learning and informed students' self-awareness of their non-verbal communication. These findings support the use of Kolb's ELT as a theoretical framework and of video review and reflection to guide veterinary students' learning of communication skills in a primary care setting. © 2014 AAVMC. Source


Ludwig A.,Public Health Agency of Canada | Berthiaume P.,Public Health Agency of Canada | Boerlin P.,Ontario Veterinary College | Gow S.,University of Saskatchewan | And 2 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2013

While the genesis of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in animal production is a high profile topic in the media and the scientific community, it is still not well understood. The epidemiology of AMR is complex. This complexity is demonstrated by extensive biological and evolutionary mechanisms which are potentially impacted by farm management and husbandry practices - the risk factors. Many parts of this system have yet to be fully described. Notably, the occurrence of multiple resistance patterns is the rule rather than exception - the multivariate problem. A first essential step in the development of any comprehensive risk factor analysis - whose goal is the prevention or reduction of AMR - is to describe those associations between different patterns of resistance which are systematic. That is, have sufficient statistical support for these patterns to be considered robust features of the underlying epidemiological system, and whose presence must therefore be incorporated into any risk factor analysis of AMR for it to be meaningful with respect to the farm environment. Presented here is a case study that seeks to identify systematic associations between patterns of resistance to 13 different antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates obtained from composite finisher (>80. kg) pig faecal samples obtained from Canada's five major pork producing provinces. The use of a Bayesian network analysis approach allowed us to identify many systematic associations between individual antimicrobial resistances. Sixteen of these resistances are corroborated with existing literature. These associations are distributed between several important classes of antimicrobials including the β-lactams, folate biosynthesis inhibitors, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides and quinolones. This study presents an exciting first step towards the larger and far more ambitious goal of developing generic and holistic risk factor analyses for on-farm occurrence of AMR. Analyses of this nature would combine multivariate response variables (joint patterns of resistance) with multi-factorial causal factors from within the livestock production environment thereby permitting a more complete understanding of the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. © 2013. Source


McIlwraith C.W.,Colorado State University | Frisbie D.D.,Colorado State University | Kawcak C.E.,Colorado State University | Fuller C.J.,University of Bristol | And 2 more authors.
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage | Year: 2010

Objective: Equine models of osteoarthritis (OA) have been used to investigate pathogenic pathways of OA and evaluate therapeutic candidates for naturally occurring equine OA which is a significant clinical disease in the horse. This review focuses on the macroscopic and microscopic criteria for assessing naturally occurring OA in the equine metacarpophalangeal joint as well as the osteochondral fragment-exercise model of OA in the equine middle carpal joint. Methods: A review was conducted of all published OA studies using horses and the most common macroscopic and microscopic scoring systems were summarized. Recommendations regarding methods of OA assessment in the horse have been made based on published studies. Results: A modified Mankin scoring system is recommended for semi-quantitative histological assessment of OA in horses due to its already widespread use and similarity to other scoring systems. Recommendations are also provided for histological scoring of synovitis and macroscopic lesions of OA as well as changes in the calcified cartilage and subchondral bone of naturally occurring OA. Conclusions: The proposed system for assessment of equine articular tissues provides a useful method to quantify OA change. It is believed that addition of quantitative tracing onto plastic and macroscopic measurement as recently described would be an improvement for overall assessment of articular cartilage change. © 2010 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Source


King N.,Ontario Veterinary College | Dewey C.,Ontario Veterinary College | Dewey C.,University of Guelph | Borish D.,Ontario Veterinary College
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: Education is a key element in the socioeconomic development required to improve quality of life in Kenya. Despite the introduction of free primary education, primary school enrollment and attendance levels remain low. Drawing on qualitative and quantitative data, this study explores the determinants of non-enrollment and absenteeism in rural western Kenya and potential mitigation strategies to address these issues. Methods: The study was conducted in Bwaliro village in rural western Kenya. A random sample of 64 students was obtained by blocking the village primary school's student population according to grade level, gender, and orphan status. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through interviews with parents, guardians, and key informants, and focus group discussions with students. Quantitative data were compared using chi-square tests, Student's T-test, and Poisson regressions. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Results: Malaria, menstruation, and lack of money were among the most notable determinants of primary school dropout and absenteeism, and these factors disproportionately impacted orphans and female students. Potential mitigation strategies suggested by the community included provision of malaria treatment or prevention, reduction in education costs, expansion of the established school-feeding program, and provision of sanitary pads. Conclusion: Despite free primary education, numerous factors continue to prevent children in rural western Kenya from attending primary school. The findings suggest that interventions should primarily target orphaned and female students. Prior to implementation, suggested mitigation strategies should be assessed for cost-effectiveness. © 2015 King et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

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