Ontario Shores Center for Mental Health science
Ontario Shores Center for Mental Health science
Maclean L.M.,University of Glasgow |
Brown L.J.E.,University of Manchester |
Khadra H.,United Technologies |
Astell A.J.,University of Sheffield |
Astell A.J.,Ontario Shores Center for Mental Health science
Gait and Posture | Year: 2017
Previous studies exploring the effects of attention-prioritization on cognitively healthy older adults’ gait and cognitive dual task (DT) performance have shown DT cost in gait outcomes but inconsistent effects on cognitive performance, which may reflect task difficulty (the cognitive load). This study aimed to identify whether changing the cognitive load during a walking and counting DT improved the challenge/sensitivity of the cognitive task to observe prioritization effects on concurrent gait and cognitive performance outcomes. Seventy-two cognitively healthy older adults (Mean = 73 years) walked 15 m, counted backwards in 3 s and 7 s as single tasks (ST), and concurrently walked and counted backwards as DTs. Attention-prioritization was examined in Prioritizing Walking (PW) and Prioritizing Counting (PC) DT conditions. Dual-task performance costs (DTC) were calculated for number of correct cognitive responses (CCR) in the counting tasks, and step-time variability and velocity in the gait task. All DT conditions showed a benefit (DTB) for cognitive outcomes with trade-off cost to gait. In the Serial 3 s task, the cognitive DTBs increased in PC over the PW condition (p < 0.05), with a greater cost to walking velocity (p < 0.05). DT effects were more pronounced in the Serial 7 s with a lower cognitive DTB when PC than when PW, (p < 0.05) with no trade-off increase in cost to gait outcomes (p < 0.05). The findings suggest that increased cognitive load during a gait and cognitive DT produces more pronounced gait measures of attention-prioritization in cognitively healthy older adults. A cognitive load effect was also observed in the cognitive outcomes, with unexpected results. © 2017
McGrath C.,Ontario Shores Center for Mental Health science |
Astell A.,Ontario Shores Center for Mental Health science |
Astell A.,University of Sheffield
British Journal of Occupational Therapy | Year: 2017
Introduction While research has investigated the factors influencing acquisition and use of technologies/assistive devices by older adults, few studies have addressed the decision-making processes regarding technology adoption of older adults with age-related vision loss. Method This critical ethnography engaged 10 older adults with age-related vision loss in narrative interviews, participant observation sessions, and semi-structured in-depth interviews to understand their decision-making processes related to the acquisition and use of low vision assistive devices to support occupational engagement. Findings Study findings focused on the benefits and barriers to technology acquisition and use. Benefits of technology acquisition included: enhanced occupational engagement; independence; safety; insurance; and validation of the disability, while the barriers to technology acquisition included: cost; training; usability; lack of awareness of low vision rehabilitation services; fear of being taken advantage of; and desire to preserve a preferred self-image. Conclusion Considering the low uptake of vision rehabilitation services, the study findings are important to occupational therapy. A better understanding of the perceived benefits and barriers to technology adoption from the perspective of older adults will help occupational therapists maximize treatment planning designed to enhance the occupational engagement of older adults aging with vision loss. © The College of Occupational Therapists Ltd.
Schwind J.K.,Ryerson University |
Lindsay G.M.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology |
Coffey S.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology |
Morrison D.,Durham College |
Mildon B.,Ontario Shores Center for Mental Health science
Nurse Education Today | Year: 2014
Background: Nursing education has a history of encouraging students to know their patients and to negotiate the in-between of art/science, person/profession, and intuition/evidence. Nurse-teachers know that students may abandon some values and practices when they encounter practice environments that are complex and have competing agendas. We are concerned that nursing knowledge is black-boxed, invisible and taken-for-granted, in healthcare settings. Objectives: Our research explores how nursing students and nurses are constructing and enacting person-centred care in mental health education and practice. We want to understand the nursing standpoint on this significant ontological issue and to make nursing knowledge construction and utilization visible illuminating how person-centred theory emerges from practice. Design: The process involved four 3-hour group meetings and an individual follow-up telephone conversation. Settings: Students and nurses met at a tertiary-care mental health organization. Participants: Fourteen nurses (Registered Nurses and Registered Practical Nurses) and nursing students (Bachelor of Science in Nursing and Practical Nursing) participated in our inquiry. Methods: We used arts-informed narrative inquiry to explore experience through the arts such as metaphor, collage, poems, letters, and group conversations. Results: The black-box is opened as the inquiry reveals how nursing knowledge is constructed, assumptions are challenged and new practices emerge. Conclusions: Our research is significant for education and for practice and is transferable to other populations and settings. Nurses are affirmed in person-centred values and practices that include partnership with those in their care, role modeling for colleagues and mentoring students and new nurses. Students participate in transferring their learning from school to practice, in the company of experienced colleagues; together they open the black-box to show how nurses conceptualize and enact person-centred care. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Gabe K.,The Hincks Dellcrest Center and North York General Hospital |
Pinhas L.,Ontario Shores Center for Mental Health science |
Eisler I.,King's College London |
Katzman D.,Hospital for Sick Children |
Heinmaa M.,Hospital for Sick Children
Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry | Year: 2014
Objective: Preliminary research suggests that multiple family therapy (MFT) may be an effective intervention for adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN). This study compared the extent of weight restoration for patients enrolled in one year of MFT compared to a matched control group receiving treatment as usual (TAU). Method: A retrospective chart review was performed using data from 25 MFT cases matched to 25 controls on age, diagnosis and year of entry to the eating disorder program. Results: Both cases and controls experienced significant weight restoration, however patients enrolled in MFT were restored to a higher mean percent ideal body weight than the TAU group (99.6% (±7.27%) vs. 95.4 (±6.88); p<0.05). Conclusions: MFT may be more effective than TAU in restoring weight in adolescents with AN. © 2014, Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. All Rights Reserved.
Penney S.R.,Center for Addiction and Mental Health |
Morgan A.,Ontario Shores Center for Mental Health science
Law and Human Behavior | Year: 2016
Research on violence perpetrated by individuals with major mental illness (MMI) typically focuses on the presence of specific psychotic symptoms near the time of the violent act. This approach does not distinguish whether symptoms actually motivate the violence or were merely present at the material time. It also does not consider the possibility that non-illness-related factors (e.g., anger, substance use), or multiple motivations, may have been operative in driving violence. The failure to make these distinctions clouds our ability to understand the origins of violence in people with MMI, to accurately assess risk and criminal responsibility, and to appropriately target interventions to reduce and manage risk. This study describes the development of a new coding instrument designed to assess motivations for violence and offending among individuals with MMI, and reports on the scheme's interrater reliability. Using 72 psychiatric reports which had been submitted to the court to assist in determining criminal responsibility, we found that independent raters were able to assess different motivational influences for violence with a satisfactory degree of consistency. More than three-quarters (79.2%) of the sample were judged to have committed an act of violence as a primary result of illness, whereas 20.8% were deemed to have offended as a result of illness in conjunction with other non-illness-based motivating influences. Current findings have relevance for clarifying the rate of illness-driven violence among psychiatric patients, as well as legal and clinical issues related to violence risk and criminal responsibility more broadly.
Penney S.R.,Center for Addiction and Mental Health |
Marshall L.A.,Ontario Shores Center for Mental Health science |
Simpson A.I.F.,Center for Addiction and Mental Health
Law and Human Behavior | Year: 2016
Individuals with serious mental illness (SMI; i.e., psychotic or major mood disorders) are vulnerable to experiencing multiple forms of adverse safety events in community settings, including violence perpetration and victimization. This study investigates the predictive validity and clinical utility of modifiable risk factors for violence in a sample of 87 forensic psychiatric patients found Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder (NCRMD) transitioning to the community. Using a repeated-measures prospective design, we assessed theoretically based dynamic risk factors (e.g., insight, psychiatric symptoms, negative affect, treatment compliance) before hospital discharge, and at 1 and 6 months postdischarge. Adverse outcomes relevant to this population (e.g., violence, victimization, hospital readmission) were measured at each community follow-up, and at 12 months postdischarge. The base rate of violence (23%) was similar to prior studies of discharged psychiatric patients, but results also highlighted elevated rates of victimization (29%) and hospital readmission (28%) characterizing this sample. Many of the dynamic risk indicators exhibited significant change across time and this change was related to clinically relevant outcomes. Specifically, while controlling for baseline level of risk, fluctuations in dynamic risk factors predicted the likelihood of violence and hospital readmission most consistently (hazard ratios [HR] = 1.35-1.84). Results provide direct support for the utility of dynamic factors in the assessment of violence risk and other adverse community outcomes, and emphasize the importance of incorporating time-sensitive methodologies into predictive models examining dynamic risk. © 2016 American Psychological Association.
Levi M.D.,Ontario Shores Center for Mental Health Science |
Nussbaum D.S.,University of Toronto |
Rich J.B.,York University
Criminal Justice and Behavior | Year: 2010
This article represents an initial attempt to adapt the three most relevant components of Moyer's animal aggression typology to humans. These include predatory (unemotional, goal-directed), irritable (anger-based), and defensive (fear-based) aggression. As different brain networks are likely involved, the authors hypothesized that executive function and personality tests could differentiate violent from nonviolent criminals and discriminate the types originally classified on the basis of criminal history. Discriminant analyses correctly classified 80% of the violent and nonviolent groups and 74% of the predatory and irritable groups. Of theoretical salience, the predatory group resembled the unimpaired nonviolent group only on the cognitive Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test but was indistinguishable from the impaired irritable aggression group on the Iowa Gambling, suggesting inhibitory deficits primarily in the face of reward opportunity. Implications for the theory and application to risk assessment are discussed. © 2010 International Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology.
Ghaffar O.,Sunnybrook Health science Center |
Ghaffar O.,Ontario Shores Center for Mental Health science |
Ghaffar O.,University of Toronto |
Fiati M.,Sunnybrook Health science Center |
And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Cognitive dysfunction affects half of MS patients. Although brain atrophy generally yields the most robust MRI correlations with cognition, significant variance in cognition between individual MS patients remains unexplained. Recently, markers of cognitive reserve such as premorbid intelligence have emerged as important predictors of neuropsychological performance in MS. In the present study, we aimed to extend the cognitive reserve construct by examining the potential contribution of occupational attainment to cognitive decline in MS patients. Brain atrophy, estimated premorbid IQ, and occupational attainment were assessed in 72 MS patients. The Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in MS was used to evaluate indices of information processing speed, memory, and executive function. Results showed that occupational attainment was a significant predictor of information processing speed, memory, and executive function in hierarchical linear regressions after accounting for brain atrophy and premorbid IQ. These data suggest that MS patients with low occupational attainment fare worse cognitively than those with high occupational attainment after controlling for brain atrophy and premorbid IQ. Occupation, like premorbid IQ, therefore may make an independent contribution to cognitive outcome in MS. Information regarding an individual's occupation is easily acquired and may serve as a useful proxy for cognitive reserve in clinical settings. © 2012 Ghaffar et al.
Martin K.,Ontario Shores Center for Mental Health science |
Martin E.,Ontario Shores Center for Mental Health science
Behavioral Sciences and the Law | Year: 2016
It is the responsibility of forensic psychiatric hospitals to detain and treat patients, gradually reintegrating them into society; decisions to release patients must balance risk to the public with maintaining the least restrictive environment for patients. Little is known about the factors considered when making such decisions and whether these factors have been empirically linked to future risk of violence. The current study explores the factors predictive of forensic treatment teams' recommendations for patients under the care of the Ontario Review Board (ORB). Factors differ depending on level of security; decisions on medium secure units were influenced by the presence of active symptoms and patients' overall violence risk level and decisions made on minimum secure units were influenced by the number of critical incidents that occurred within the recommendation year. Understanding the factors used to make recommendations to the ORB tribunal helps treatment teams to reflect on their own decision-making practices. Furthermore, the results serve to inform us about factors that influence length of stay for forensic psychiatric patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Raymond G.,Ontario Shores Center for Mental Health science
Healthcare quarterly (Toronto, Ont.) | Year: 2011
This case study outlines key considerations for healthcare organizations experiencing significant transformational change, based on the experience of Ontario Shores Centre for Mental Health Sciences (Ontario Shores), formerly Whitby Mental Health Centre. Significant systemic change requires specific and intentional efforts from the leaders tasked with carrying out transformational activities. This article presents the perspectives of leaders involved in the transformation of Ontario Shores as it moved from a government-based agency to a stand-alone specialty psychiatric hospital in 2006. During this time, several conventional strategies were employed to manage the transition, but various critical approaches also emerged that assisted the organization to effect significant change and achieve marked improvements over key evaluation metrics. These critical strategies included maximizing the distinct and collective roles of governance and leadership; balancing strategy and action through a culture of accountability; leveraging strategic communication opportunities; and shifting the organizational mindset.