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Alipour M.,Lakehead University | Alipour M.,Laurentian University | Alipour M.,Ontario Ginseng Innovation and Research Consortium | Omri A.,Laurentian University | And 5 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

North American ginseng is known to have immunomodulatory and antipseudomonal properties in vitro. In this study we investigated the effects of aqueous ginseng extract, either alone or in a combination with the antibiotic tobramycin, in an animal model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection. The lungs of male rats (n = 5) were infected with P. aeruginosa (2×108 cfu/mL) in agar-beads by intratracheal instillation. Starting on day 7 post-infection, animals were treated daily for 3 consecutive days with saline, tobramycin (300 μg/kg body mass, intratracheal), and (or) ginseng (100 mg/kg body mass, subcutaneous); animals were sacrificed 24 h after the third drug treatment. Lung bacteria counts, cytokine levels in sera, and lung histopathology were examined. The treatment of infected animals with tobramycin [6.6 × 104 colony forming units (cfu)], ginseng (5.3 × 104 cfu), or tobramycin plus ginseng (2.0 × 103 cfu) lessened the lung infection compared with the control group (saline treated) (6.0 × 106 cfu). The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, TNF-α) in infected animals were significantly increased with co-treatment of ginseng plus tobramycin. These data suggest that co-administration of aqueous ginseng extract and tobramycin stimulated the pro-inflammatory response and promoted the killing of P. aeruginosa. Source

Samimi R.,University of Western Ontario | Samimi R.,Ontario Ginseng Innovation and Research Consortium | Xu W.Z.,University of Western Ontario | Lui E.M.K.,University of Western Ontario | And 3 more authors.
Planta Medica | Year: 2014

Extraction of medicinally active components from natural health products has become an emerging source for drug discovery. Of particular interest for this work was the finding and testing of a new ginsenoside from North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius). In the present study, a large amount of 6″-O-acetylginsenoside Rb1, compound 7, was found using ultrasonic extraction of North American ginseng with DMSO aqueous solution. This new ginsenoside was well identified with MS, FTIR, and 1D (1H and 13C) and 2D (gCOSY, gHSQC, and gHMBC) NMR. Subsequent bioassay experiments confirmed that compound 7 demonstrated an additional immunosuppressive activity towards inhibiting the production of nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor alpha in lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage cells in a dose-dependent manner using murine macrophages. This new ginsenoside is encouraging for the further exploration and development of novel drugs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York, ISSN 0032-0943. Source

Jiang M.,University of Western Ontario | Jiang M.,Ontario Ginseng Innovation and Research Consortium | Murias J.M.,University of Western Ontario | Chrones T.,University of Western Ontario | And 5 more authors.
Frontiers in Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Chronic ginseng treatments have been purported to improve cardiac performance. However reports of acute administration of ginseng on cardiovascular function remain controversial and potential mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we examined the effects of acute North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) administration on rat cardiac contractile function by using electrocardiogram (ECG), non-invasive blood pressure (BP) measurement, and Langendorff isolated, spontaneously beating, perfused heart measurements (LP). Eight-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8 per group) were gavaged with a single dose of water-soluble American ginseng at 300 mg/kg body weight. Heart rate (HR) and BP were measured prior to and at 1 and 24 h after gavaging (ECG and BP). Additional groups were used for each time point for Langendorff measurements. HR was significantly decreased (ECG: 1 h: 6 ± 0.2%, 24 h: 8 ± 0.3%; BP: 1 h: 8.8 ± 0.2%, 24 h: 13 ± 0.4% and LP: 1 h: 22 ± 0.4%, 24 h: 19 ± 0.4%) in rats treated with water-soluble ginseng compared with pre or control measures. An initial marked decrease in left ventricular developed pressure was observed in LP hearts but BP changes were not observed in BP group. A direct inhibitory effect of North American ginseng was observed on cardiac contractile function in LP rats and on fluorescence measurement of intracellular calcium transient in freshly isolated cardiac myocytes when exposed to ginseng (1 and 10 μg/ml). Collectively these data present evidence of depressed cardiac contractile function by acute administration of North American ginseng in rat. This acute reduction in cardiac contractile function appears to be intrinsic to the myocardium. © 2014 Jiang, Murias, Chrones, Sims, Lui and Noble. Source

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