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Toronto, Canada

Khokha R.,Ontario Cancer Institute
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology | Year: 2011

The adult mammary structure provides for the rapid growth, development, and immunological protection of the live-born young of mammals through its production of milk. The dynamic remodeling of the branched epithelial structure of the mammary gland in response to physiological stimuli that allow its programmed branching morphogenesis at puberty, cyclical turnover during the reproductive cycle, differentiation into a secretory organ at parturition, postlactational involution, and ultimately, regression with age is critical for these processes. Extracellular metalloproteinases are essential for the remodeling programs that operate in the tissue microenvironment at the interface of the epithelium and the stroma, coupling form with function. Deregulated proteolytic activity drives the transition of a physiological mammary microenvironment into a tumor microenvironment, facilitating malignant transformation.


Song M.S.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Salmena L.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Salmena L.,Ontario Cancer Institute | Pandolfi P.P.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2012

The importance of the physiological function of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) is illustrated by its frequent disruption in cancer. By suppressing the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway through its lipid phosphatase activity, PTEN governs a plethora of cellular processes including survival, proliferation, energy metabolism and cellular architecture. Consequently, mechanisms regulating PTEN expression and function, including transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional regulation by non-coding RNAs, post-translational modifications and proteing-protein interactions, are all altered in cancer. The repertoire of PTEN functions has recently been expanded to include phosphatase-independent activities and crucial functions within the nucleus. Our increasing knowledge of PTEN and pathologies in which its function is altered will undoubtedly inform the rational design of novel therapies. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Simpson J.T.,Ontario Cancer Institute
Bioinformatics | Year: 2014

Motivation: The de novo assembly of large, complex genomes is a significant challenge with currently available DNA sequencing technology. While many de novo assembly software packages are available, comparatively little attention has been paid to assisting the user with the assembly. Results: This article addresses the practical aspects of de novo assembly by introducing new ways to perform quality assessment on a collection of sequence reads. The software implementation calculates per-base error rates, paired-end fragment-size distributions and coverage metrics in the absence of a reference genome. Additionally, the software will estimate characteristics of the sequenced genome, such as repeat content and heterozygosity that are key determinants of assembly difficulty. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.


Stein L.D.,Ontario Cancer Institute
Genome Biology | Year: 2010

With DNA sequencing now getting cheaper more quickly than data storage, the time may have come to use cloud computing for genome informatics. © 2010 BioMed Central Ltd.


Asa S.L.,Ontario Cancer Institute
Modern Pathology | Year: 2011

The endocrine cells of the pancreas and their related cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract give rise to a variety of tumors that pose a diagnostic challenge. There has been progress in understanding their histogenesis, morphology, immunohistochemistry, molecular biology and classifications. This review will focus on nomenclature/terminology, classification, the role of immunohistochemistry, molecular advances, including genetic predisposition, and potential therapeutic targets to define the role of pathology in the application of prognostic and predictive markers for this disease. © 2011 USCAP, Inc. All rights reserved.

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