Onson Consulting

Göteborg, Sweden

Onson Consulting

Göteborg, Sweden
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Kaprio T.,University of Helsinki | Hagstrom J.,University of Helsinki | Fermer C.,Fujirebio Diagnostics AB | Mustonen H.,University of Helsinki | And 4 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: Podocalyxin (PODXL) is a transmembrane sialomucin, whose aberrant expression and/or allelic variation associates with poor prognosis and unfavourable clinicopathological characteristics in different cancers. Membranous expression of PODXL has been suggested to be an independent marker of poor prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC), and previously by an in-house monoclonal antibody, we showed that also cytoplasmic overexpression of PODXL predicts poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to compare two PODXL antibodies with different epitopes case-by-case in CRC patients.Methods: Of 840 consecutively operated CRC patients from Helsinki University Central Hospital, PODXL expression by polyclonal HPA 2110 antibody was evaluated from 780. Associations of PODXL expression with clinicopathological parameters and the impact of PODXL expression on survival were assessed. Kappa-value was used to assess the comparability of the two antibodies.Results: Membranous PODXL expression associated with unfavourable clinicopathological parameters and with higher risk for disease-specific death from CRC within 5 years (unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.90; 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.32-2.75); adjusted HR = 1.64; 95% CI (1.11-2.43)). The comparability of expressions by the two antibodies was low (kappa =0.219, standard error 0.060, p < 0.0001). Combination of two antibodies identified a group of patients with even worse prognosis (unadjusted HR = 6.00; 95% CI (3.27-13.0); adjusted HR = 2.14; 95% CI (1.12-4.07)).Conclusion: Membranous expression by the polyclonal PODXL antibody and cytoplasmic overexpression by the monocolonal PODXL antibody are both independent markers of poor prognosis, but they recognise different groups of patients, both of which have poor prognosis. The combined use of the antibodies reveals a group with an even worse prognosis. The biological reasons for the difference between antibodies warrant further studies. © 2014 Kaprio et al.


Saukkonen K.,University of Helsinki | Hagstrom J.,University of Helsinki | Mustonen H.,University of Helsinki | Juuti A.,University of Helsinki | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Aim of the Study: Podocalyxin-like 1 is a transmembrane glyco-protein whose overexpression associates in many cancers with poor prognosis and unfavorable clinicopathological characteristics. Until now, its prognostic value has never been studied in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The aim of this study was to investigate podocalyxin expression in PDAC by a novel monoclonal antibody and a commercially available polyclonal antibody. Patients and Materials: With tissue microarrays and immuno-histochemistry, podocalyxin expression evaluation involved 168 PDAC patients. The associa-tions of the podocalyxin tumor expression with clinicopathological variables were explored by Fisher's exact test and the linear-by-linear test. Survival analyses were by Kaplan-Meier anal-ysis and the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: The polyclonal antibody revealed membranous podocalyxin expression in 73 (44.0%) specimens and the monoclonal antibody was highly expressed in 36 (21.8%) cases. Membranous expression by the polyclonal antibody was associated with T classification (p=0.045) and perineural invasion (p=0.005), and high expression by the mono-clonal antibody with poor differentiation (p=0.033). High podocalyxin expression associated significantly with higher risk of death from PDAC by both the polyclonal antibody (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-2.33; p=0.01) and the monoclonal antibody (HR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.38-3.20; p<0.001). The results remained significant in multivariate analysis, adjusted for age, gender, stage, lymph node ratio (≥/< 20%), and perivascular invasion (respectively as HR = 2.03; 95% CI 1.32-3.13, p=0.001; and as HR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.47-3.80, p<0.001). Conclusion: We found podocalyxin to be an independent factor for poor prognosis in PDAC. To our knowledge, this is the first such report of its prognostic value. © 2015 Saukkonen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Laitinen A.,University of Helsinki | Bockelman C.,University of Helsinki | Hagstrom J.,University of Helsinki | Kokkola A.,University of Helsinki | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background Podocalyxin-like 1 (PODXL) is a cell-adhesion glycoprotein associated with aggressive tumor phenotype and poor prognosis in several forms of cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate PODXL expression in gastric cancer by use of two different antibodies. Methods By tumor-tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry we evaluated PODXL expression in tumor specimens from 337 patients who underwent surgery for gastric adenocarcinoma at Helsinki University Hospital. We used two different antibodies: HPA2110, which is a polyclonal antibody and an in-house monoclonal antibody called HES9, to investigate the association of PODXL expression with clinicopathologic variables and patient survival. Results PODXL staining was positive by the polyclonal antibody in 153 (57.5%) cases and by the monoclonal antibody in 212 (76%). Polyclonal antibody expression was associated with intestinal cancer type (p<0.001). Monoclonal antibody staining was associated with age over 66 (p = 0.001), with intestinal cancer (p<0.001), and with small tumor size (5 cm; p = 0.024). Both antibodies were associated with high S-phase fraction (p = 0.022; p = 0.010), and high tumor proliferation index (Ki-67; p = 0.003; p = 0.001). PODXL positivity by the polyclonal antibody indicated reduced gastric-cancer-specific 5-year survival of 24.0% (95% CI 16.9â€"31.1), compared to 43.3% (95% CI 33.7â€"52.9) for patients with PODXL negativity (p = 0.001). The result remained significant in multivariable analysis (HR = 3.17; 95% CI 1.37â€"7.34, p = 0.007). Conclusion In gastric cancer, PODXL expression by the polyclonal antibody HPA2110 is an independent marker of poor prognosis. © 2015 Laitinen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Kaprio T.,University of Helsinki | Fermer C.,Fujirebio Diagnostics AB | Hagstrom J.,University of Helsinki | Mustonen H.,University of Helsinki | And 3 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: Over two decades ago, a proposal was that two different colorectal cancer (CRC) entities existed, based on tumour location either proximal (right) or distal (left) of the splenic flexure. Proximal and distal tumours exhibit different clinical, epidemiological, and biological characteristics. Improvement of the prognostic evaluation of CRC requires new molecular markers. Podocalyxin-like 1 (PODXL), an anti-adhesive transmembrane sialomucin, is associated with an aggressive tumour phenotype and poor prognosis. For colorectal cancer, it has been suggested to be a marker of poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PODXL in CRC by use of a novel monoclonal antibody.Methods: In 1983-2001, 840 consecutive colorectal cancer patients were treated at Helsinki University Central Hospital, of whom 767 were successfully scored for PODXL immunohistochemical expression from tumour tissue microarrays by use of a novel monoclonal in-house antibody. Associations of PODXL expression and tumour location with other clinicopathological variables were explored by Fisher's exact-test, linear-by- linear association test, and binary logistic regression. Survival analyses were done by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model.Results: PODXL protein expression was high in 44 (5.7%) specimens. High expression associated strongly with poor differentiation (p < 0.0001), advanced stage (p = 0.011), and location of the tumour in the right hemicolon (RHC) (p < 0.001). Tumours of the RHC were more poorly differentiated (p < 0.0001) and showed higher PODXL expression (p < 0.001).High PODXL expression associated significantly with higher risk for disease-specific death from CRC (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-3.06, p = 0.001) and also in the subgroups of left hemicolon (LHC) cancers (HR = 2.60; 95% CI 1.45-4.66, p = 0.001) and rectal cancers (HR = 3.03; 95% CI 1.54-5.60, p = 0.001). Results remained significant in multivariable analysis (respectively, HR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.15-2.86, p = 0.01; HR = 2.59; 95% CI 1.41-4.88, p = 0.002; and HR = 2.69; 95% CI 1.30-5.54, p = 0.007).Conclusion: Podocalyxin was an independent factor for poor prognosis in colorectal cancer and in the subgroups of left hemicolon and rectum. This is, to our knowledge, the first evidence of such difference in PODXL expression, its function possibly being dependent upon tumour location. © 2014 Kaprio et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Jernman J.,University of Helsinki | Jernman J.,Fimlab Laboratories | Hagstrom J.,University of Helsinki | Maenpaa H.,University of Helsinki | And 6 more authors.
Anticancer Research | Year: 2015

Background: Expression of novel stem cell-associated marker human embryonic stem cell 77 (HES77) was studied in rectal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), which comprise 10 to 15% of gastroenteropancreatic NETs, some with metastatic potential. Materials and Methods: WHO 2010 classification was applied, and immunohistochemical positivity for HES77 was assessed in 72 primary tumors and 6 metastases. Correlations were calculated between HES77 expression, metastasis and patient survival. Results: Expression of HES77 strongly positively correlated with metastatic potential and poorer prognosis. The proliferative index determined in the metastasis did not correlate with patient survival. Conclusion: Novel stem cell-associated marker HES77 has a strong prognostic value in patients with rectal NETs and may be useful in selecting those who are at-risk for developing metastatic disease, and who may benefit from intensive adjuvant therapy. Proliferative index in the metastasis did not predict for outcome. Characterization of the HES77 epitope would certainly enhance the interest in the antibody.


PubMed | Fujirebio Diagnostics AB, Onson Consulting and University of Helsinki
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Podocalyxin-like 1 is a transmembrane glyco-protein whose overexpression associates in many cancers with poor prognosis and unfavorable clinicopathological characteristics. Until now, its prognostic value has never been studied in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The aim of this study was to investigate podocalyxin expression in PDAC by a novel monoclonal antibody and a commercially available polyclonal antibody.With tissue microarrays and immuno-histochemistry, podocalyxin expression evaluation involved 168 PDAC patients. The associations of the podocalyxin tumor expression with clinicopathological variables were explored by Fishers exact test and the linear-by-linear test. Survival analyses were by Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Cox proportional hazard model.The polyclonal antibody revealed membranous podocalyxin expression in 73 (44.0%) specimens and the monoclonal antibody was highly expressed in 36 (21.8%) cases. Membranous expression by the polyclonal antibody was associated with T classification (p=0.045) and perineural invasion (p=0.005), and high expression by the mono-clonal antibody with poor differentiation (p=0.033). High podocalyxin expression associated significantly with higher risk of death from PDAC by both the polyclonal antibody (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-2.33; p=0.01) and the monoclonal antibody (HR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.38-3.20; p<0.001). The results remained significant in multivariate analysis, adjusted for age, gender, stage, lymph node ratio (/< 20%), and perivascular invasion (respectively as HR = 2.03; 95% CI 1.32-3.13, p=0.001; and as HR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.47-3.80, p<0.001).We found podocalyxin to be an independent factor for poor prognosis in PDAC. To our knowledge, this is the first such report of its prognostic value.

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