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Dresden, Germany

Knauf W.,Onkologische Gemeinschaftspraxis | Abenhardt W.,Munchner Onkologische Praxis | Dorfel S.,Onkozentrum | Meyer D.,Hamatologisch Onkologische Schwerpunktpraxis | And 4 more authors.
Hematological Oncology

Various treatment options exist for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Clinical registries provide insight into routine treatment and identify changes in treatment over time. The Tumour Registry Lymphatic Neoplasms prospectively collects data on the treatment of patients with lymphoid B-cell neoplasm as administered by office-based haematologists in Germany. Data on patient and tumour characteristics, co-morbidities, systemic treatments, and outcome parameters are recorded. Eight hundred and six patients with CLL were recruited between May 2009 and August 2013. At the start of first-line treatment, median age was 71years, 64% were male, and 44% had a Binet stage C disease. The most frequently used first-line/second-line regimens were bendamustine+rituximab (BR, 56%/55%), fludarabine+cyclophosphamide+rituximab (FCR, 22%/11%), and bendamustine (B, 5%/9%). Chlorambucil was used in only 7% (first-line) and 6% (second-line) of patients. Patients treated with FCR were younger and healthier than patients treated with BR. Overall, 91% of first-line treatments were successful (40% complete response). Real-life patient populations differ considerably from patients treated in randomized controlled trials. BR and FCR dominate the first-line and second-line treatments of CLL by office-based haematologists in Germany. Future analysis will investigate progression-free and overall survival times. © 2014 The Authors. Hematological Oncology Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Krzemieniecki K.,University Hospital | Sevelda P.,KH Hietzing | Smakal M.,Ustav Onkologie a Pneumalogie Na Plesi | Schwenkglenks M.,University of Basel | And 5 more authors.
Supportive Care in Cancer

Purpose: Clinical practice adherence to current guidelines that recommend primary prophylaxis (PP) with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSFs) for patients at high (≥20 %) overall risk of febrile neutropenia (FN) was evaluated. Methods: Adult patients with breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), or ovarian cancer were enrolled if myelotoxic chemotherapy was planned, and they had an investigator-assessed overall FN risk ≥20 %. The primary outcome was FN incidence. Results: In total, 1,347 patients were analysed (breast cancer, n = 829; NSCLC, n = 224; SCLC, n = 137; ovarian cancer, n = 157). Patients with breast cancer exhibited fewer individual FN risk factors than patients with other cancers and were far more likely to have received a high-FN-risk chemotherapy regimen. However, a substantial proportion of all patients (45-80 % across tumour types) did not receive G-CSF PP in alignment with investigator risk assessment and guideline recommendations. FN occurred in 127 patients overall (9 %, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8-11 %), and incidence was higher in SCLC (15 %) than other tumour types (8 % in ovarian and NSCLC, 9 % in breast cancer). A post hoc analysis of G-CSF use indicated that G-CSF prophylaxis was not given within the recommended timeframe after chemotherapy (within 1-3 days) or was not continued across all cycles in 39 % of patients. Conclusions: FN risk assessment was predominantly based on clinical judgement and individual risk factors, and guidelines regarding G-CSF PP for patients at high FN risk were not consistently followed. Improved education of physicians may enable more fully informed neutropenia management in patients with solid tumours. © 2013 The Author(s). Source

Trojan A.,Onkozentrum | Trojan A.,BreastCenter Zurich | Vergopoulos A.,Laboratory EndersandPartner | Breitenstein U.,Onkozentrum | And 4 more authors.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology

Background: Endoxifen serum concentrations seem to correlate with outcome in breast cancer (BC) patients. Concurrently, cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme activity and dextromethorphan (DM) metabolism are deemed a surrogate marker for the formation of endoxifen. Here, we conducted a matched cohort study to determine the impact of an extensive CYP2D6 phenotype on relapse in patients with early-stage estrogen receptor (ER)-positive BC and adjuvant tamoxifen intake. Methods: CYP2D6 extensive metabolism was determined upon appropriate dextromethorphan/dextrorphan (DM/DX) urinary excretion ratios (≤0.30). Fifty-nine BC patients were identified as extensive phenotype metabolizers, while for 148 matched controls, CYP2D6 was not determined. Patients and controls did not differ with respect to age, stage, hormone receptor status, HER2, grade, menopausal status, chemotherapy and antihormonal therapy. Survival analysis was performed according to clinical follow-up. Results: Disease-free survival (DFS) of patients identified as extensive CYP2D6 metabolizers did not differ significantly from controls (p = 0.10). However, when patients with ER expression of ≤20 % were excluded from the analysis, DFS was associated with a more favorable outcome (p = 0.06). Conclusions: This study suggests a positive association between extensive CYP2D6 metabolism and outcome in early-stage ER-positive BC patients using tamoxifen and in particular, when a sufficient number ERs are represented on the primary tumor. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Gautschi O.,Tumorzentrum | Stadelmann C.,Tumorzentrum | Aebersold-Keller F.,Tumorzentrum | Konig K.,University of Cologne | And 15 more authors.
Oncology Research and Treatment

Background: The role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in the treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and unknown EGFR mutation status has recently been questioned. Patients and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of patients with unknown EGFR mutation status and long-term response (LTR) to gefitinib in the Swiss Iressa expanded access program (EAP). We assessed patient characteristics, and performed Sanger sequencing and next generation sequencing on archived tumor tissue. We hypothesized that EGFR mutations are prevalent in patients with LTR. Results: Of 430 patients in the EAP, 18 (4%) fulfilled our definition of LTR, and 16 of them had archived tumor tissue. Patient characteristics were as expected for age, sex, and smoking history. Median duration of therapy was 38 months (range 24-142 months). Sanger sequencing revealed EGFR exon 18-21 mutations in 6 (38%) of the tumors. Next generation sequencing revealed no further EGFR-mutated cases, but reported in 15 (94%) of the tumors mutations in other genes (ALK, BRAF, DDR2, KEAP1, MET, PTEN, STK11) previously associated with NSCLC. Conclusion: Larger studies are needed to define the prognostic values of different driver mutations in patients with NSCLC. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg. Source

Trojan A.,Onkozentrum | Trojan A.,University of Zurich | Vergopoulos A.,University of Zurich | Vergopoulos A.,Laboratory Enders and Partner | And 5 more authors.
Breast Care

Background: The growth inhibitory effect of tamoxifen is used for the treatment of breast cancer. Tamoxifen efficacy is mediated by its biotransformation, predominantly via the cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) isoenzyme, to the active metabolite endoxifen. We investigated the relationship of CYP2D6 genotypes to the metabolism of dextromethorphan (DM), which is frequently used as a surrogate marker for the formation of endoxifen. Methods: The CYP2D6 genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in previously untreated patients with hormone receptor-positive invasive breast cancer considered to receive antihormonal therapy. The DM/dextrorphan (DX) urinary excretion ratios were obtained in a subset of patients by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-mediated urine analysis after intake of 25 mg DM. The relationships of genotype and corresponding phenotype were statistically analyzed for association. Results: From 151 patients predicted based on their genotype data for the 'traditional' CYP2D6 phenotype classes poor, intermediate, extensive and ultrarapid, 83 patients were examined for their DM/DX urinary ratios. The genotype-based poor metabolizer status correlated with the DM/DX ratios, whereas the intermediate, extensive and ultrarapid genotypes could not be distinguished based on their phenotype. Citalopram intake did not significantly influence the phenotype. Conclusions: The DM metabolism can be reliably used to assess the CYP2D6 enzyme activity. The correlation with the genotype can be incomplete and the metabolic ratios do not seem to be compromised by citalopram. DM phenotyping may provide a standardized tool to better assess the CYP2D6 metabolic capacity. © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg. Source

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