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Nantes, France

Guilloteau P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Martin L.,Oniris | Martin L.,University of Nantes | Eeckhaut V.,Ghent University | And 3 more authors.
Nutrition Research Reviews | Year: 2010

Butyrate is a natural substance present in biological liquids and tissues. The present paper aims to give an update on the biological role of butyrate in mammals, when it is naturally produced by the gastrointestinal microbiota or orally ingested as a feed additive. Recent data concerning butyrate production delivery as well as absorption by the colonocytes are reported. Butyrate cannot be detected in the peripheral blood, which indicates fast metabolism in the gut wall and/or in the liver. In physiological conditions, the increase in performance in animals could be explained by the increased nutrient digestibility, the stimulation of the digestive enzyme secretions, a modification of intestinal luminal microbiota and an improvement of the epithelial integrity and defence systems. In the digestive tract, butyrate can act directly (upper gastrointestinal tract or hindgut) or indirectly (small intestine) on tissue development and repair. Direct trophic effects have been demonstrated mainly by cell proliferation studies, indicating a faster renewal of necrotic areas. Indirect actions of butyrate are believed to involve the hormono-neuro-immuno system. Butyrate has also been implicated in down-regulation of bacteria virulence, both by direct effects on virulence gene expression and by acting on cell proliferation of the host cells. In animal production, butyrate is a helpful feed additive, especially when ingested soon after birth, as it enhances performance and controls gut health disorders caused by bacterial pathogens. Such effects could be considered for new applications in human nutrition. © 2010 The Authors.

Le Velly R.,Montpellier SupAgro | Dufeu I.,Oniris
Journal of Rural Studies | Year: 2016

The aim of this article is to show Actor-Network Theory's (ANT) potential for accounting for the alternative-conventional hybridity of alternative food networks. A review of the literature shows that this has not yet been done. Consequently, this article proposes to fill this gap with findings from ANT research regarding such notions as "market devices," "market mediation," and "market agencements." The theory is backed up by an analysis of a local food system involving five small fishermen and the delivery of fish to 1500 households in the area around Nantes in France. Seeing this local food system as a "market agencement," i.e., a sociotechnical arrangement capable of market action, makes it possible to underscore the many hybridities that compose alternative food networks: those of human, material, and natural entities; the local and global scales; and production and consumption; but also that of alternative and conventional actors and devices. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Anon M.C.,Research Center sarrollo En Criotecnologia Of Alimentos | De Lamballerie M.,Oniris | Speroni F.,Research Center sarrollo En Criotecnologia Of Alimentos
Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies | Year: 2011

In the present work the effect of high pressure (HP) treatment in the presence of NaCl on the thermal behavior of soybean proteins was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry. The thermograms obtained have shown that NaCl addition increased the thermal stability - increase in temperatures of denaturation (Td) - of both glycinin and β-conglycinin. HP treatments increased thermal stability of glycinin, but decreased that of β-conglycinin. High NaCl concentrations decreased (in glycinin) or inverted (in β-conglycinin) the effects of HP on thermal stability. Cooperativity of denaturation of glycinin was enhanced by NaCl and HP. Cooperativity of denaturation of β-conglycinin was enhanced by HP and also by NaCl at 0.2 mol/L but decreased with the combination of treatments. Salt addition increased the enthalpy, ΔH, of denaturation of glycinin and β-conglycinin, being this effect stronger on glycinin. HP treatment provoked the denaturation of both protein fractions. The presence of NaCl protected glycinin against HP-denaturation at any assayed salt concentration and pressure level, while β-conglycinin was only protected at 200 and 400 MPa, but was more denaturated at 600 MPa in the presence of 0.6 mol/L of NaCl. Industrial relevance: The knowledge provided by this work may be useful in the handling of high pressure-treated food with high NaCl content (e.g. meat emulsions, smallgoods) where soybean proteins are used as additives, in order to choose high pressure values to achieve their denaturation or predict the effects of ulterior thermal treatments. Thus, this knowledge may be useful to increase the use of high pressure in food industry. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chartier C.,Oniris | Mercier P.,Anses Laboratoire Of Niort | Pellet M.-P.,Anses Laboratoire Of Niort | Vialard J.,Anses Laboratoire Of Niort
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012

The effect of an inactivated paratuberculosis vaccine on the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in goats was investigated in a herd with a history of clinical paratuberculosis but which was free of TB. Cohorts of animals in 2006, 2008 and 2009, were vaccinated once at 1 month of age, and 50% of the 2006 cohort served as unvaccinated controls. The goats were aged 8 months, 20 months and 3.5 years old at the time of the survey. All animals were assessed using a single intradermal injection of bovine tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) (SID test), or using both bovine and avian PPD (CID test). An interferon (IFN)-γ assay using both bovine and avian PPD was carried out on the 2006 cohort and was interpreted according to three different 'cut-off' points. No unvaccinated (control) animals tested positive to any of the assays, confirming that the herd was TB-free. The SID test had a low specificity in vaccinated animals at 8 and 20 months of age, whereas the CID test demonstrated 100% specificity in animals ≥20 months-old. The specificity of IFN-γ assay was less than maximal for vaccinated animals 3.5 years old as small numbers of false positives were detected, although this depended on the chosen cut-off point. The study findings demonstrate that the use of an inactivated paratuberculosis vaccine in goats <1 month-old in a TB-free herd does not result in false positives to a CID test for TB when performed in animals ≥20 months-old. © 2011.

Laffont J.-L.,DuPont Pioneer | Wright K.,DuPont Pioneer | Hanafi M.,Oniris
Crop Science | Year: 2013

Biplots have been widely used in recent years for the analysis of multi-environment trials through the genotype plus genotype × environment (GGE) biplot analysis or through the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction analysis. Sometimes the environments are structured in blocks of environments, for example, regions or years. In this paper, we propose a new biplot technique for describing genotype × environment interactions that takes into account this additional information. We call it a GGB biplot for genotype plus genotype × block of environments biplot. This biplot has interesting geometrical properties that will be covered in this paper. Similarly to what was done for the GGE biplot (Laffont et al., 2007), we also establish a link between the partitioning of the total sum of squares provided by the GGB biplot and the partitioning provided by the analysis of variance. Simulated and real data are used to illustrate this new biplot. © Crop Science Society of America.

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