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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Goujard L.,Aix - Marseille University | Roumanet P.-J.,CNRS Laboratory for Analysis and Modelling for Biology and Environment | Barea B.,Montpellier SupAgro | Raoul Y.,Onidol | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Polymers and the Environment | Year: 2016

This work compares the biodegradability of polyesters produced by an esterification reaction between glycerol and oleic di-acid (D 18:1) issued from green chemical pathways, via either classical thermo-chemical methods, or an enzymatic method using the immobilized lipase of Candida antartica B (Novozym 435). An elastomeric polymer synthesized by enzymatic catalysis is more biodegradable than an elastomeric thermo-chemical polyester synthesized by a standard chemical procedure. This difference lies in percentage of the dendritic motifs, in values of the degree of substitution, and certainly in cross-links inducing an hyper-branched structure less accessible to the lipolytic enzymes in a waste treatment plant. However, when the elastomeric polymer synthesized by enzymatic catalysis is processed at high temperature as required for certain industrial applications, it presents an identical rate of biodegradation than the chemical polyester. The advantages of the thermo-chemical methods are greater speed and lower cost. Enzymatic synthesis appears be suited to producing polyesters, devoid of metallic catalysts, which must be used without processing at high temperature to keep a high biodegradability. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Dupont C.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Rouge S.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Berthelot A.,FCBA | Da Silva Perez D.,FCBA | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering | Year: 2010

A characterization study has been performed of the French regional resources that may be used in Biomass-to-Liquid plants based on gasification in entrained-flow reactor. It is based on about 90 representative samples of wood chips from forestry, Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) and of agricultural biomass, including straws and energy crops. Results show that there is not much variability in properties inside the different families. The majority of properties do not seem to be problematical for the process. However, some properties may be questionable: (i) wood chips size distribution, with many small particles ( below 2 mm) and very large particles (above 70 mm), (ii) bulk density, which is very low in agricultural products (about 100 kg.m-3), (iii) sulphur, fluorine and chlorine contents, which are high, especially chlorine in agricultural straws (1000-8000 mg/kg) (iv) other impurities amounts, such as Ni and B, which are in relatively high amounts in some samples (v) ash content, which is high in SRC/SRF (3 wmf%) and very high in most agricultural raw materials (5 wmf%). Based on these statements, first conclusions on the suitability between feedstock and process may be drawn. Wood chips from forestry appear as the most suitable resource for the process and should be the first resource to be used in industrial plants. SRC/SRF also seem quite suitable for the process and may be seen as a short-term alternative. Agricultural raw materials seem to be more problematical and may be seen as a mid-term option. © 2010 The Berkeley Electronic Press. All rights reserved.

Nohra B.,ENSIACET | Candy L.,ENSIACET | Blanco J.-F.,ENSIACET | Raoul Y.,Onidol | Mouloungui Z.,ENSIACET
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2012

Aminolysis reaction of glycerol carbonate with primary amine in organic and hydroorganic media leads to the formation of two hydroxyurethane isomers and a partial decomposition of glycerol carbonate into glycerol. Aminolysis with a secondary amine promotes the condensation reaction and limits the formation of glycerol. The ratio of α versus β was determined by zgig 13C NMR. This technique permits computing the yield of α and β products in the medium. The quantity of glycerol was determined by GC analysis. The ratio of the isomers and the amount of glycerol depend on the amine and the solvent. Kinetic investigations reveal that, in hydroorganic medium, the more the alkyl chain of the amine increased, the less glycerol was formed. On the contrary, in organic medium, the alkyl chain of the amine does not play a major role in the formation of glycerol. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Sunflower meal is an alternative source of proteins for feedstuff but its high fiber content reduces the nutritional value. Different dehulling processes can improve the protein content and the nutritional value of meal. Partially dehulled sunflower meals with 32% and 36% of proteins produced in different crushing plants in France had been compared to non-dehulled sunflower meal (29% of proteins). The total French feedstuff production was simulated with a model including prices of raw materials observed during 2010-2011 campaign. The interest prices of the different qualities of sunflower meal compared to soybean meal varied from 0.43, 0.50 to 0.70 for 29, 32 and 36% of proteins content respectively. The 36% protein sunflower meal seems very well adapted to laying hens and ducks diets where 29% type should be more adapted to meat cows, sows and rabbits who need less concentrated diets. The new market for the 36 % protein sunflower meal type could notably help to provide local sources of proteins for high quality poultry production.

Pham P.D.,Charles Gerhardt Institute | Monge S.,Charles Gerhardt Institute | Lapinte V.,Charles Gerhardt Institute | Raoul Y.,Onidol | Robin J.J.,Charles Gerhardt Institute
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2013

This paper aims at making the state of the art of the radical polymerizations of glycerol-based monomers, especially (meth)acrylate and vinylic/allylic derivatives. Acrylate and methacrylate derivatives bearing numerous secondary groups like ester, cyclocarbonate, acetal, and urethane were involved in free radical polymerization and radical controlled polymerizations as well as in the photopolymerization. Glycerol-based monomers bearing a vinylic or an allylic polymerizable group polymerize by acceptor-donor process and produce alternating copolymers. From all these monomers, the synthesis of functionalized polymers was possible, leading to various valuable applications. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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