Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France
Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

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Nohra B.,ENSIACET | Nohra B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Candy L.,ENSIACET | Candy L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 5 more authors.
Macromolecules | Year: 2013

From a green and sustainable chemistry standpoint, the current challenge in the polyurethane's industry is to switch from petrobased polyurethanes (PUs) to biobased polyhydroxyurethanes (PHUs). This review describes the main alternative strategies being developed with a focus on PHUs from vegetable oils and derivatives. The substitution of petrobased polyols by natural oil based polyols was the first route to biobased PUs to be developed. The second strategy involves synthesis without the need of harmful isocyanate by the nucleophilic polyaddition of polyamines to polycyclic carbonates. The technological barrier to the synthesis of biobased cyclic carbonates could be overcome by the chemical transformation of epoxidized vegetable oils or by the use of glycerine carbonate-based intermediates. New families of biobased PHUs with a lower environmental footprint could be generated. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Tesseraud S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Chartrin P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Metayer-Coustard S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Hermier D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 5 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

n-3 PUFA are crucial for health and development. Their effects as regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism are well documented. They also appear to affect protein metabolism, especially by acting on insulin sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of n-3 PUFA, i.e. The precursor α-linolenic acid (ALA) 18 : 3n-3 or long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA), in chickens, by focusing on their potential function as co-regulators of the insulin anabolic signalling cascade. Ross male broilers were divided into six dietary treatment groups. Diets were isoproteic (22 % crude protein) and isoenergetic (12·54 MJ metabolisable energy/kg) and contained similar lipid levels (6 %) provided by different proportions of various lipid sources: oleic sunflower oil rich in 18 : 1n-9 as control; fish oil rich in LC-PUFA; rapeseed and linseed oils providing ALA. The provision of diets enriched with n-3 PUFA, i.e. rich in LC-PUFA or in the precursor ALA, for 3 weeks improved the growth performance of chickens, whereas that of only the ALA diet enhanced the development of the pectoralis major muscle. At 23 d of age, we studied the insulin sensitivity of the pectoralis major muscle and liver of chickens after an intravenous injection of insulin or saline. The present results indicate that the activation patterns of n-3 PUFA are different in the liver and muscles. An ALA-enriched diet may improve insulin sensitivity in muscles, with greater activation of the insulin-induced 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase/ribosomal protein S6 pathway involved in the translation of mRNA into proteins, thereby potentially increasing muscle protein synthesis and growth. Our findings provide a basis on which to optimise dietary fatty acid provision in growing animals. Copyright © 2013 The Authors.


PubMed | ONIDOL and French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids | Year: 2014

The hypothesis that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could contribute to maintain muscle mass during energy restriction aiming to weight loss was tested in the rat, with special attention paid to insulin signalling. After 10 weeks on a diet rich in lipids and sucrose, male rats were energy restricted and fed diets rich in 18:1 n-9 (OLE), 18:3 n-3 (ALA) or n-3 long-chain (LC, >18 carbons) PUFA. After 4 weeks, they were killed after an insulin injection. Red blood cells, liver, and Gastrocnemius muscle were enriched in ALA in the ALA group, and in LC-PUFA in the ALA and LC groups. The LC diet resulted in a higher weight loss, without negative impact on the muscle weight. In parallel, hepatic phosphorylation of insulin receptor and IRS1 was the highest in this group. This suggests that the trend we observed in the preservation of protein homeostasis in the LC group is mediated, at least partly, by an enhancement of the early steps of insulin signalling resulting from cell membrane enrichment in n-3 PUFA.


PubMed | ONIDOL and French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: The British journal of nutrition | Year: 2014

n-3 PUFA are crucial for health and development. Their effects as regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism are well documented. They also appear to affect protein metabolism, especially by acting on insulin sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of n-3 PUFA, i.e. the precursor -linolenic acid (ALA) 18:3n-3 or long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA), in chickens, by focusing on their potential function as co-regulators of the insulin anabolic signalling cascade. Ross male broilers were divided into six dietary treatment groups. Diets were isoproteic (22 % crude protein) and isoenergetic (1254 MJ metabolisable energy/kg) and contained similar lipid levels (6 %) provided by different proportions of various lipid sources: oleic sunflower oil rich in 18:1n-9 as control; fish oil rich in LC-PUFA; rapeseed and linseed oils providing ALA. The provision of diets enriched with n-3 PUFA, i.e. rich in LC-PUFA or in the precursor ALA, for 3 weeks improved the growth performance of chickens, whereas that of only the ALA diet enhanced the development of the pectoralis major muscle. At 23 d of age, we studied the insulin sensitivity of the pectoralis major muscle and liver of chickens after an intravenous injection of insulin or saline. The present results indicate that the activation patterns of n-3 PUFA are different in the liver and muscles. An ALA-enriched diet may improve insulin sensitivity in muscles, with greater activation of the insulin-induced 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase/ribosomal protein S6 pathway involved in the translation of mRNA into proteins, thereby potentially increasing muscle protein synthesis and growth. Our findings provide a basis on which to optimise dietary fatty acid provision in growing animals.


Dupont C.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Rouge S.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Berthelot A.,FCBA | Da Silva Perez D.,FCBA | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering | Year: 2010

A characterization study has been performed of the French regional resources that may be used in Biomass-to-Liquid plants based on gasification in entrained-flow reactor. It is based on about 90 representative samples of wood chips from forestry, Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) and of agricultural biomass, including straws and energy crops. Results show that there is not much variability in properties inside the different families. The majority of properties do not seem to be problematical for the process. However, some properties may be questionable: (i) wood chips size distribution, with many small particles ( below 2 mm) and very large particles (above 70 mm), (ii) bulk density, which is very low in agricultural products (about 100 kg.m-3), (iii) sulphur, fluorine and chlorine contents, which are high, especially chlorine in agricultural straws (1000-8000 mg/kg) (iv) other impurities amounts, such as Ni and B, which are in relatively high amounts in some samples (v) ash content, which is high in SRC/SRF (3 wmf%) and very high in most agricultural raw materials (5 wmf%). Based on these statements, first conclusions on the suitability between feedstock and process may be drawn. Wood chips from forestry appear as the most suitable resource for the process and should be the first resource to be used in industrial plants. SRC/SRF also seem quite suitable for the process and may be seen as a short-term alternative. Agricultural raw materials seem to be more problematical and may be seen as a mid-term option. © 2010 The Berkeley Electronic Press. All rights reserved.


Nohra B.,ENSIACET | Candy L.,ENSIACET | Blanco J.-F.,ENSIACET | Raoul Y.,Onidol | Mouloungui Z.,ENSIACET
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2012

Aminolysis reaction of glycerol carbonate with primary amine in organic and hydroorganic media leads to the formation of two hydroxyurethane isomers and a partial decomposition of glycerol carbonate into glycerol. Aminolysis with a secondary amine promotes the condensation reaction and limits the formation of glycerol. The ratio of α versus β was determined by zgig 13C NMR. This technique permits computing the yield of α and β products in the medium. The quantity of glycerol was determined by GC analysis. The ratio of the isomers and the amount of glycerol depend on the amine and the solvent. Kinetic investigations reveal that, in hydroorganic medium, the more the alkyl chain of the amine increased, the less glycerol was formed. On the contrary, in organic medium, the alkyl chain of the amine does not play a major role in the formation of glycerol. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Pham P.D.,Charles Gerhardt Institute | Monge S.,Charles Gerhardt Institute | Lapinte V.,Charles Gerhardt Institute | Raoul Y.,ONIDOL | Robin J.J.,Charles Gerhardt Institute
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2013

This paper aims at making the state of the art of the radical polymerizations of glycerol-based monomers, especially (meth)acrylate and vinylic/allylic derivatives. Acrylate and methacrylate derivatives bearing numerous secondary groups like ester, cyclocarbonate, acetal, and urethane were involved in free radical polymerization and radical controlled polymerizations as well as in the photopolymerization. Glycerol-based monomers bearing a vinylic or an allylic polymerizable group polymerize by acceptor-donor process and produce alternating copolymers. From all these monomers, the synthesis of functionalized polymers was possible, leading to various valuable applications. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Sunflower meal is an alternative source of proteins for feedstuff but its high fiber content reduces the nutritional value. Different dehulling processes can improve the protein content and the nutritional value of meal. Partially dehulled sunflower meals with 32% and 36% of proteins produced in different crushing plants in France had been compared to non-dehulled sunflower meal (29% of proteins). The total French feedstuff production was simulated with a model including prices of raw materials observed during 2010-2011 campaign. The interest prices of the different qualities of sunflower meal compared to soybean meal varied from 0.43, 0.50 to 0.70 for 29, 32 and 36% of proteins content respectively. The 36% protein sunflower meal seems very well adapted to laying hens and ducks diets where 29% type should be more adapted to meat cows, sows and rabbits who need less concentrated diets. The new market for the 36 % protein sunflower meal type could notably help to provide local sources of proteins for high quality poultry production.


Cooking-pressing or extrusion-pressing processes applied to soybeans produce partially deoiled cake used for animal feeding. These two processes were studied and compared with a view to implementation in an industrial unit. The various factors of hydrothermal treatment for conditioning the beans were studied at different scales (batch from 2 kg to 100 kg, and continuous flow at 100 kg/h) and the results showed the need for moist cooking to effectively deactivate the antitrypsin factors (FAT) while maintaining protein solubility. The extrusion-pressing was more effective for deoiling cakes than cooking-pressing (5.4 vs. 6.7 %) but less robust for deactivation of FAT (6.5 vs. 3.8 TIU/mg). The techno-economical study was carried out to simulate the crushing costs and net margins of both processes in a plant capacity of 20 000 t / year. It showed that the costs of both methods were similar (about 33 €/t). Gross margins were evaluated between 18 and 84 € / t in three valuation assumptions based on market price of oil, the mode value of the meal and the residual oil, the level of premiums GMO traceability and transport. The cooking-pressing process can also be applied to sunflower and rapeseed and versatility is an advantage to ensure continuous operation of the crushing unit in case of supply difficulties in soybean.


Insufficient performance of the available varieties is often considered as a barrier to a larger introduction of alternative crops in the European crop rotation. So as to better understand how is organized the breeding activity of such minor crops and what are the main difficulties they face, the example of three oilseed crops is considered: soybean, linseed and industrial hemp. All of them are grown on small surfaces in France and in the European Union and they benefit from a little breeding activity in France. Specific story, context, organization, objective of the breeding activity, seed market specificity are analyzed for each species. Limited and unstable cropping areas and for some cultivation like soybean low rate of certified seeds used by the farmers lead to restricted and unpredictable markets, discouraging the seed companies to invest in the breeding programs. Weak involvement of the public research on genetic resources conservation and on genetic research and the lack of means avoiding the access to modern genetic tools are found to contribute to relatively low genetic progresses. However, the analyze of the situation for soybean, linseed and hemp show that some actors, often related to the cooperative sectors, continue to breed for different reasons and have now an international gratefulness in their domain. In some cases, original and efficient organization scheme have been set thanks to coordinated involvements along the global production chain. The study demonstrates also that a significant number and a wide range of varieties are released on the market and that significant genetic progresses have been reached on several quality and yield traits. To conclude, breeding is one of crucial points which have to be supported by the public and private actors in coordinated way so as to keep out these promising crops from a "minor status" and to allow their extension in Europe. © 2013 F. Labalette, S. Legros, published by EDP Sciences.

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