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Fontainebleau, France

Michalet R.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Maalouf J.-P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Choler P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Clement B.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 3 more authors.
Ecography | Year: 2015

Understanding the relative contribution of local and regional processes to local species richness is an important ecological question and a subject of controversy between macroecologists and community ecologists. We test the hypothesis that the contribution of local and regional processes is dependent on environmental conditions and that the effect of regional processes should be the highest in communities from intermediate positions along environmental severity gradients due to the importance of facilitation. We used the recently developed log-ratio method to analyze the relationship between local species richness (LSR) and regional species richness (RSR) for 13 plant communities from 4 habitat types of France (coastal sand dunes, oceanic heathlands, alpine grasslands, lowland calcareous grasslands). Each habitat type was split in 3-4 communities using multivariate analyses to identify the relative importance of stress, disturbance, competition, and facilitation functioning within the 13 communities. We found that the LSR/RSR relationship was highly dependent on environmental conditions with saturated communities occurring more frequently than unsaturated communities highlighting the relative importance of local drivers on species richness. We argued that competition was most likely the main source of community saturation whilst facilitation likely contributed to enhancing the importance of the regional species pool for all habitat types. However, the effect of facilitation might be stronger in the disturbed than in the stressed systems because unsaturated curves were only observed in the former conditions. In extreme conditions of disturbance LSR was only controlled by the intensity of disturbance. This effect was not observed in extreme stress conditions. Our study provides support for the emerging balance theory that both local and regional processes are important in nature with their relative contribution depending on environmental conditions. Additionally, this synthesis strongly suggests that facilitation contributes to an important process - the influence of regional species pool on local species richness. © 2014 The Authors.

A new species of the genus Probaticus Seidlitz, 1896, P. (Pelorinus) peslieri sp. nov., is described from some localities of the island of Lesvos, Eastern Aegean Greece. It is compared to all its Greek relatives. © Fundacja Natura optima dux.

Trap J.,CNRS Biodiversity Studies Laboratory | Bureau F.,CNRS Biodiversity Studies Laboratory | Brethes A.,ONF | Jabiol B.,Agro ParisTech | And 4 more authors.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

The development of temperate deciduous and conifers forests stands usually results in accumulation of forest floor organic matter and a shift from mull to moder humus forms. It has been suggested that an increase in nutrient uptake by trees during their rapid growth phase leads to topsoil acidification, decrease in earthworm density and thereby a decrease in litter turnover. The focus of this paper was to examine if the mull-moder shift with forest ageing results from higher leaf litter production and/or lower litter decay rates. The objectives of this research were to determine (1) changes in macro-morphological properties of humus forms, leaf litter production, litter decay rates, soil nutrients content and pH along a 130-year pure beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) chronosequence in Normandy (Northwest France), (2) if humus form varied from mull to moder with increasing stand age, and (3) if a shift from mull to moder resulted from increased litter production, decreased litter decay rates, or both. Annual litter production did not change significantly along the chronosequence (mean 2.41tha-1). In contrast, litter decay rates decreased significantly during the rapid growth phase of trees. In consequence, the litter turnover time (1/k) was lower in the youngest stands (20 months) compared to the oldest ones (31 months). Even in the absence of a significant pattern of variation, litter production was positively correlated with the thickness of the OF (Oi) horizon. In contrast, litter decay was strongly negatively correlated with maximum thickness of the OH (Oa) horizon, suggesting that the appearance of the humification layer was mainly due to a decrease in litter decay rate. We did not find significant changes in the main properties of the organo-mineral horizon, suggesting that soil nutrient availability may not directly affect litter dynamics. We concluded that moder development along the chronosequence resulted in decreasing litter decay rates during the aggradation phase while litter production was stable. Further studies are required to identify the ecological factors responsible for moder development along forest ageing. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Husson C.,University of Lorraine | Cael O.,University of Lorraine | Grandjean J.P.,ONF | Nageleisen L.M.,Departement de la Sante des Forets Antenne Specialisee | Marcais B.,University of Lorraine
Plant Pathology | Year: 2012

Ash decline induced by Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus is an emerging disease that severely affects Fraxinus excelsior stands in Europe. There has been an invasive spread of the disease from east to west in Europe over the last decade. Wood discoloration on infected trunks has been reported, but few data are available on the involvement of H. pseudoalbidus in such symptoms. Transport and trade of ash logs could introduce the pathogen into disease-free areas and therefore accelerate its dissemination. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of H. pseudoalbidus in ash logs in infested areas located in the northeast of France and to clarify the role of secondary pathogens in ash decline. The results showed that prevalence of H. pseudoalbidus on collar lesions was high in the study area. The pathogen was able to produce conidia from infected wood. Thus, export of ash logs could represent a potential risk for spreading the disease. Involvement of Armillaria spp. in the decline process was confirmed, while no Phytophthora-induced collar lesions were found. Studying both disease prevalence and the age of callus tissues surrounding collar lesions in 60 ash stands enabled the origin of the disease in the study area to be determined. © 2012 INRA. Plant Pathology © 2012 BSPP.

Gandois L.,Ecolab | Nicolas M.,ONF | VanderHeijden G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Probst A.,Ecolab
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2010

The trace metal (TM: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) budget (stocks and annual fluxes) was evaluated in a forest stand (silver fir, Abies alba Miller) in north-eastern France. Trace metal concentrations were measured in different tree compartments in order to assess TM partitioning and dynamics in the trees. Inputs included bulk deposition, estimated dry deposition and weathering. Outputs were leaching and biomass exportation. Atmospheric deposition was the main input flux. The estimated dry deposition accounted for about 40% of the total trace metal deposition. The relative importance of leaching (estimated by a lumped parameter water balance model, BILJOU) and net biomass uptake (harvesting) for ecosystem exportation depended on the element. Trace metal distribution between tree compartments (stem wood and bark, branches and needles) indicated that Pb was mainly stored in the stem, whereas Zn and Ni, and to a lesser extent Cd and Cu, were translocated to aerial parts of the trees and cycled in the ecosystem. For Zn and Ni, leaching was the main output flux (> 95% of the total output) and the plot budget (input-output) was negative, whereas for Pb the biomass net exportation represented 60% of the outputs and the budget was balanced. Cadmium and Cu had intermediate behaviours, with 18% and 30% of the total output relative to biomass exportation, respectively, and the budgets were negative. The net uptake by biomass was particularly important for Pb budgets, less so for Cd and Cu and not very important for Zn and Ni in such forest stands. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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