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Maroufi S.,University of New South Wales | Mayyas M.,University of New South Wales | Mansuri I.,University of New South Wales | O'Kane P.,OneSteel | And 4 more authors.
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science | Year: 2017

The chemical interaction of a typical slag of EAF with three different carbon sources, coke, rubber-derived carbon (RDC), coke-RDC blend, was studied in atmospheric pressure at 1823 K (1550 °C). Using an IR-gas analyzer, off-gases evolved from the sample were monitored. While the coke-RDC blend exhibited the best reducing performance in reaction with molten slag, the RDC sample showed poor interaction with the molten slag. The gasification of the coke, RDC, and coke-RDC blend was also carried out under oxidizing conditions using a gas mixture of CO2 (4 wt pct) and Ar (96 wt pct) and it was shown that the RDC sample had the highest rate of gasification step (Formula presented.) (11.6 site/g s (×6.023 × 1023/2.24 × 104)). This may be attributed to its disordered structure confirmed by Raman spectra and its nano-particle morphology observed by FE-SEM. The high reactivity of RDC with CO2 provided evidence that the Boudouard reaction was fast during the interaction with molten slag. However, low reduction rate of iron oxide from slag with RDC can be attributed to the initial weak contact between RDC and molten slag implying that the contact between carbonaceous matter and slag plays significant roles in the reduction of iron oxide from slag. © 2017 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International


Alam M.,Swinburne University of Technology | Irons G.,McMaster University | Brooks G.,Swinburne University of Technology | Fontana A.,OneSteel | Naser J.,Swinburne University of Technology
ISIJ International | Year: 2011

In Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) steelmaking, liquid metal splashes on the furnace wall due to the impingement of high speed oxygen jet on molten metal surface. The splashed metal droplets cause wear of furnace wall and loss of production. Optimization of the operating condition (lance angle, lance height and flow rate) may reduce splashing and increase productivity. In the present study, the effect of different operating conditions on the wall splashing rate was investigated. Air was injected on water surface in a small-scale thin slice model at different lance angles, lance heights and flow rates. Splashed liquid in the forward direction was collected and measured in each case. The forward splashing rate was found to increase with the increase of lance angle from the vertical and flow rate. The critical depth of penetration as well as the impact velocity for the onset of splashing was found to decreases with the increase of lance angle from the vertical. The effect of lance angle on the dimensionless Blowing number (NB), which is a measure of droplet generation rate, was quantified. A new approach has been proposed for modelling the gas jet impinging phenomenon inside the real furnace using room temperature water model. © 2011 ISIJ.


Kongkarat S.,University of New South Wales | Khanna R.,University of New South Wales | Koshy P.,University of New South Wales | O'Kane P.,Onesteel | Sahajwalla V.,University of New South Wales
Steel Research International | Year: 2011

Bakelite is a thermoset plastic commonly found in electronic and automobile components. CaCO3 is generally found in the polymer as a filler material. Since it cannot be remelted, the disposal of this material has become an environmental issue. The present study investigates a new route to utilize waste bakelite as a source of carbon in EAF steelmaking process. This paper reports the carbon dissolution behaviour of bakelite/coke blends into liquid steel at 1550°C. The carbon pick up in the liquid steel after reaction with varying blends of bakelite/coke for 30 minutes ranged between 0.13 wt% to 0.17 wt%; these were generally higher than that observed from coke alone (0.1 wt%). The dissolution rate (K) was also found to improve and the observed trend was BK2 (0.045 × 10-3 s-1) > BK3 (0.023 × 10-3 s-1) > BK1 (0.005 × 10-3 s -1) > coke (0.003 × 10-3 s-1). The reaction products formed at the interface after 30 minutes of contact between liquid steel and bakelite/coke blends were observed to be a CaS-Al 2O3 complex. The presence of CaS in the interfacial layer due to the CaO in the ash, lowered melting temperature of the layer, thereby allowing for increased removal of the ash layer and greater carbon pick-up. The CaO is formed from the decomposition of CaCO3, and its presence was found to have a positive effect on modifying the properties of the coke, and thereby enhancing the carbon dissolution behaviour. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Sahajwalla V.,University of New South Wales | Zaharia M.,University of New South Wales | Rahman M.,University of New South Wales | Khanna R.,University of New South Wales | And 5 more authors.
Steel Research International | Year: 2011

Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) steelmaking uses different carbon based materials as foaming agents. Depending on cost and availability, anthracite and metallurgical coke are among the conventional injecting materials. Considering the energy and green house gas emissions requirements, alternative carbon sources are put on the spot to replace, at least partially, the conventional materials, i.e. waste materials such as rubber and high density polyethylene (HDPE) plastics may react with gas and slag phases resulting in devolatilization, combustion and iron oxide reduction reactions. The addition of waste tyres and waste plastics in EAF steelmaking has been studied in detail by our groups at UNSW and OneSteel is developing a method for EAFs to use blends of different proportions of rubber/HDPE plastics and coke as a slag foaming agent. Initially, laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the feasibility of carbon and polymer blends as foaming agents. The enhanced slag foaming performance compared to coke was found to be in good accordance with the results obtained in the laboratory indicating an increased slag volume when using polymeric blends. Following the successful installation of materials handling systems at both plants, the use of a rubber and coke blend is no longer considered a trial and is instead standard practice. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Sahajwalla V.,University of New South Wales | Zaharia M.,University of New South Wales | Kongkarat S.,University of New South Wales | Khanna R.,University of New South Wales | And 6 more authors.
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2012

Research on the use of waste polymeric materials is one of the solutions for developing environmentally friendly recycling processes for steelmaking. Different polymeric materials [i.e., rubber, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyethylene therephtalate (PET), and Bakelite], which have different chemical structures and compositions, were selected for this study as carbon resources. The rapid heating to high temperatures provided during steelmaking will break down the polymeric chains and reactions with liquid slag, enabling gas formation. The dynamic changes in the volume of the slag droplet while in contact with the coke/polymer substrates are measured. Significant levels of gas generation and entrapment are present, leading to an improved performance over coke. Carbon/metal reactions were studied by measuring carbon and sulfur pick-up by liquid metal as well as the formation of reaction products at the metal/carbon interface. The measured carbon pick-up value after 2 min of reaction for metallurgical coke was approximately 0.08 wt %, whereas 100% polymers, such as PET and HDPE, showed an increased value of >2 wt %. The proportion of sulfur pick-up was very similar. The formation of interfacial products, in the case of Bakelite-coke blends, was studied, and the presence of CaCO 3 used as a filler was seen to influence the chemical properties of the carbonaceous substrate. This study has established fundamentals of the interaction of waste polymers with slag and metal in the steelmaking process. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Zaharia M.,OneSteel | Yunos N.F.,University Malaysia Perlis | Sahajwalla V.,University of Technology, Sydney
From Materials to Structures: Advancement Through Innovation - Proceedings of the 22nd Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials, ACMSM 2012 | Year: 2013

The steel industry consumes a large amount of energy GHG emissions[1]. Rubber tires and agricultural wastes have the potential to be used in industries seeking alternative fuel and sustainable raw materials sources. Previous studies focused on recycling these materials as fuel resources, i.e. rubber in cement industry[2],[3] and agricultural materials for power production[4]. The present paper focuses on investigations of carbon/slag reactions, namely slag foaming using rubber and palm shell wastes as sustainable carbon sources through quantitative estimation of the slag volume. An improved volume ratio for the rubber blend compared to coke was seen. Foaming was also improved when palm shell char was used as carbon material. Industrial implementations at OneSteel showed reductions in electrical energy and carbon consumption. These results indicate that partial replacement of coke with rubber and palm shell is efficient due to improved interactions with EAF slag. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group.


Kongkarat S.,University of New South Wales | Khanna R.,University of New South Wales | Koshy P.,University of New South Wales | O'Kane P.,Onesteel | Sahajwalla V.,University of New South Wales
ISIJ International | Year: 2012

Interactions between blends of metallurgical coke and polymers with EAF slag (30.5% FeO) at 1550°C have been investigated using a sessile drop arrangement to determine the influence the polymer and its chemical composition on carbon/slag interactions. Two polymers, namely polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyurethane (PU), were used in this study. The CO emissions during carbon/slag interactions for PET/Coke and PU/Coke blends were lower as compared to corresponding emissions from metallurgical coke. An improvement in slag foaming, as determined by the dynamic changes in the volume of the slag droplet, was observed when PET/Coke and PU/Coke blends were used compared to the coke alone. Relatively greater number of gas bubbles was found to be entrapped in the slag droplet along with reduced iron droplets. Higher level of H 2O formation was also seen in the case of PET/Coke and PU/Coke blends as a result of FeO reduction by H 2. These results indicate that volatiles (H 2 and CH 4) released from the polymer/coke blends can influence the interactions between carbon and slag (in addition to reduction reactions by solid carbon). This study shows that a variety of waste polymers can be utilised as a carbon resource in EAF steelmaking processes. © 2012 ISIJ.


Jones R.,OneSteel | Bannear M.,Technology and Development | Martin R.,Aglomsa CV
IRON ORE 2011, Proceedings | Year: 2011

OneSteel Whyalla's grate-kiln-cooler pelletising plant was commissioned in 1968 processing haematite feed from the local South Middleback Ranges mining area. The existence of a magnetite resource beneath the haematite ore at Iron Duke had been known for some time. In 2004, a decision was made to covert the primary iron source for the Whyalla steelworks from haematite to magnetite - known as project magnet. The intent of the project was to convert the feed to the steelworks from haematite to magnetite and to free up the remaining haematite resource for export. The pelletising plant was cut over to a magnetite feed in 2007. The thermochemical differences of magnetite compared to haematite are threefold: 1. the introduction of an exothermic reaction during conversion of magnetite to haematite, 2. the absence of bound water which existed within the haematite, and 3. lower gangue content requiring lower fl uxing levels and therefore lower calcination energy demand. The combination of these differences results in a signifi cantly different induration requirement for magnetite as compared to haematite. The change therefore required extensive research and test work to design modifi cations to the furnace and to ensure appropriate risk mitigation for the Whyalla steelworks. Preliminary pot-grate test work was performed to defi ne the pellet chemistry and confi rm the suitability of the magnetite to produce pellets suitable for the OneSteel blast furnace. A heating curve was developed by use of computer-based heat and mass balance modelling. Extensive pilot scale grate-kiln-cooler test work was then performed to confi rm the heating curve and to verify and fi ne-tune the pellet properties. Computation fl uid dynamics was used to design the physical changes to the furnace required to achieve the proposed heating curve. Following installation of an additional preheat zone, including a wall and dilution air fans, into the preheating furnace, and installation of an additional wall into the cooler, the modifi ed furnace was commissioning in December 2007. The plant performed as expected during commissioning with the actual heating curve matching the proposed curve and the produced pellets within blast furnace specifi cations.


Sahajwalla V.,University of New South Wales | Zaharia M.,University of New South Wales | Kongkarat S.,University of New South Wales | Khanna R.,University of New South Wales | And 2 more authors.
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2010

Recycling end of life products, such as waste tires and waste plastics in iron- and steelmaking permits their use as energy and material resources. The current paper discusses the combustion efficiencies of blends of metallurgical coke (MC) with plastics for electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking. Laboratory tests involved the combustion in a drop tube furnace (DTF) at 1473 K of MC premixed with different proportions of plastics, polypropylene (PP), and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) (10-30%) under a 20% O2 and 80% N2 gas mixture. In the tested conditions, coke-plastic blends indicated higher combustion efficiencies compared to coke. The gas-phase reactions appear to be influenced by the amount of volatile matter present in the carbonaceous matrix and its subsequent effect on the structural transformation of the particles because of the release of volatiles. The surface area of the coke-polymeric mixtures before and after combustion was found to be higher than the surface area of coke alone. The residual chars collected after the reaction in the DTF were characterized as a function of pore volumes and surface area of the particles. A previous study has demonstrated the possibility of partially replacing conventional coke in EAF steelmaking with end of life rubber tires. The present paper studies the potential replacement ofMCwith waste materials, such as PP and HDPE, as auxiliary fuels in EAF steelmaking. A comparison to previously reported combustion efficiencies for rubber blends is also provided. © 2009 American Chemical Society.


News Article | November 21, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

This report studies I-Beam in Global Market, especially in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India, with production, revenue, consumption, import and export in these regions, from 2011 to 2015, and forecast to 2021. This report focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with production, price, revenue and market share for each manufacturer, covering  Tata Steel  Masteel  Barrett Steel  United Steel  ArcelorMittal  AGE GROUP  NJR Steel  Ferrite Structural Steels  OneSteel Metalcentre  Elite Structural Steel  Orrcon Steel By types, the market can be split into  Type I  Type II  Type III By Application, the market can be split into  Engineering Construction  Residential Construction  Non-Residential Construction  Mining Infrastructure  Transport and Storage  Manufacturing  Other applications By Regions, this report covers (we can add the regions/countries as you want)  North America  China  Europe  Southeast Asia  Japan  India Global I-Beam Market Professional Survey Report 2016  1 Industry Overview of I-Beam  1.1 Definition and Specifications of I-Beam  1.1.1 Definition of I-Beam  1.1.2 Specifications of I-Beam  1.2 Classification of I-Beam  1.2.1 Type I  1.2.2 Type II  1.2.3 Type III  1.3 Applications of I-Beam  1.3.11 Engineering Construction  1.3.12 Residential Construction  1.3.13 Non-Residential Construction  1.3.14 Mining Infrastructure  1.3.15 Transport and Storage  1.3.16 Manufacturing  1.3.17 Other applications  1.4 Market Segment by Regions  1.4.1 North America  1.4.2 China  1.4.3 Europe  1.4.4 Southeast Asia  1.4.5 Japan  1.4.6 India 2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of I-Beam  2.1 Raw Material and Suppliers  2.2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of I-Beam  2.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of I-Beam  2.4 Industry Chain Structure of I-Beam 3 Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of I-Beam  3.1 Capacity and Commercial Production Date of Global I-Beam Major Manufacturers in 2015  3.2 Manufacturing Plants Distribution of Global I-Beam Major Manufacturers in 2015  3.3 R&D Status and Technology Source of Global I-Beam Major Manufacturers in 2015  3.4 Raw Materials Sources Analysis of Global I-Beam Major Manufacturers in 2015 4 Global I-Beam Overall Market Overview  4.1 2011-2016E Overall Market Analysis  4.2 Capacity Analysis  4.2.1 2011-2016E Global I-Beam Capacity and Growth Rate Analysis  4.2.2 2015 I-Beam Capacity Analysis (Company Segment)  4.3 Sales Analysis  4.3.1 2011-2016E Global I-Beam Sales and Growth Rate Analysis  4.3.2 2015 I-Beam Sales Analysis (Company Segment)  4.4 Sales Price Analysis  4.4.1 2011-2016E Global I-Beam Sales Price  4.4.2 2015 I-Beam Sales Price Analysis (Company Segment) For more information or any query mail at [email protected]

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