Midlothian, VA, United States
Midlothian, VA, United States

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Singh N.N.,ONE Research Institute | Lancioni G.E.,University of Bari | Winton A.S.W.,Massey University | Singh A.N.,Louisiana State University | And 2 more authors.
Psychology, Crime and Law | Year: 2011

Adults with intellectual disability who commit sexual offences against children are prosecuted and sometimes diverted to mental health facilities for training and treatment. Of the few treatment modalities used with this population, cognitive-behavioral approaches appear to hold most promise. In a preliminary study, we assessed whether three adult sexual offenders with intellectual disability could learn to control their deviant sexual arousal. Using a multiple-baseline design, we evaluated the individuals' ability to use self-control methods, Meditation on the Soles of the Feet, and a Mindful Observation of Thoughts meditation procedure to control their deviant sexual arousal when given relevant printed stimulus materials. Our data show that the individuals were minimally successful when they used their own self-control strategies, more effective with Meditation on the Soles of the Feet, and most effective with Mindful Observation of Thoughts meditation. We discuss the limitations of the study, as well as some reasons why mindfulness-based procedures may be worthy of future investigation for adult sexual offenders with intellectual disability. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


Lancioni G.E.,University of Bari | Singh N.N.,ONE Research Institute | O'Reilly M.F.,University of Texas at Austin | Sigafoos J.,Victoria University of Wellington | And 6 more authors.
Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology | Year: 2011

Objective. To evaluate technology-assisted programmes for enabling a woman and a man with brain injury and profound multiple disabilities to acquire leisure engagement. Method. The technology for the woman (Study I) involved a portable computer with mouse, a Clicker 4 software package, a touch/pressure microswitch, and an interface to connect the Clicker with the microswitch. This technology allowed the woman to choose with a simple hand response among four stimulus categories (e.g., watching a film and interacting with others), each of which included several alternatives. The technology for the man (Study II) involved a computer-based choice system that allowed him to select preferred songs through a microswitch-aided finger-movement response. Results. Data showed that the two participants learned to use the technology available and selected among the stimulus events thus reaching positive leisure engagement. Conclusion. Technology-assisted programmes may provide persons with acquired brain injury and multiple disabilities leisure engagement opportunities. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.


Lancioni G.E.,University of Bari | Singh N.N.,ONE Research Institute | O'Reilly M.F.,University of Texas at Austin | Sigafoos J.,Victoria University of Wellington | And 6 more authors.
Research in Developmental Disabilities | Year: 2010

These two studies extended previous research on the use of verbal instructions and support technology for helping persons with mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease perform daily activities. Study I included seven participants who were to carry out one of two previously targeted activities (i.e., either coffee preparation or table setting). Study II included four participants who were to carry out two new activities (i.e., preparation of a fruit salad and of a vegetable salad). The effects of activity engagement on mood (i.e., indices of happiness) were assessed by recording the participants' behavior during the activity trials and parallel non-activity periods. The participants of Study I reached percentages of correct activity performance, which normally exceeded 85. Five of them also showed higher indices of happiness during the activity trials as opposed to the non-activity periods. Three of the participants of Study II reached high percentages of correct performance on both activities available. One of these participants also showed higher indices of happiness during the activity trials. The findings were discussed in relation to previous research outcomes and in terms of their practical implications for intervention programs. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Lancioni G.,University of Bari | Singh N.,ONE Research Institute | O'Reilly M.,University of Texas at Austin | Signorino M.,Lega ro Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Developmental Neurorehabilitation | Year: 2010

Objective: To adapt an existing computer-assisted program to help a post-coma man with extensive multiple disabilities choose between stimulus events. Method: An adapted version of the program assessed in this study presented the man with 7-second samples of preferred and non-preferred stimuli, without questions, and allowed him to choose any of them through a vocalization response. The man's use of this response to choose a stimulus sample led the computer to present the matching stimulus for 20seconds. The same response used immediately after the end of the 20-second stimulus presentation led to the repetition of that presentation. Results: The adapted program version was effective in promoting high levels of choice among preferred stimuli and virtually no responding in relation to non-preferred stimuli. Indices of happiness were frequent during the program sessions. Conclusions: Computer-assisted programs for stimulus choice might be successfully adapted to post-coma persons with extensive disabilities. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved.


Lancioni G.E.,University of Bari | Singh N.N.,ONE Research Institute | O'Reilly M.F.,University of Texas at Austin | Sigafoos J.,Victoria University of Wellington | Oliva D.,Lega ro Research Center
Clinical Case Studies | Year: 2011

A new verbal-instruction system, which ensured the presentation of step instructions automatically, was used to help a woman with moderate intellectual disability and blindness perform food- and drink-preparation tasks. During Part I of the study, this system was compared with a system requiring the woman to seek instructions on her own. Two tasks were used, one with each system. During Part II of the study, the new system was applied with four additional tasks. The results of Part I showed the following: (a) the woman's level of correct performance on the task carried out with the new system was higher than the level on the other task and (b) performance of this latter task improved when the new system was used with it. The results of Part II showed satisfactory performance with all four tasks carried out with the new system. The implications of these data were discussed. © The Author(s) 2011.


Bosco A.,University of Bari | Lancioni G.E.,University of Bari | Belardinelli M.O.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Singh N.N.,ONE Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Cognitive Processing | Year: 2010

Media reports on the case of Rom Houben have constituted a new reminder of the risks of misdiagnosis with cases with apparent vegetative state, particularly when following the clinical consensus of the care team as diagnostic criterion. Systematic use of behavioral and non-behavioral assessment strategies (e.g., behavioral scales, event-related potentials, and neuro-imaging) may help reduce the aforementioned risks. A new learning assessment strategy could also be considered part of the assessment to extend the evaluation process. Signs of learning might be viewed as forms of concrete knowledge representing a basic level of non-reflective consciousness. © Marta Olivetti Belardinelli and Springer-Verlag 2009.


Lancioni G.E.,University of Bari | O'Reilly M.F.,University of Texas at Austin | Singh N.N.,ONE Research Institute | Oliva D.,Lega ro Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Developmental Neurorehabilitation | Year: 2011

Objective: To assess a computer-aided technology for assisting writing in a man who emerged from a minimally conscious state and presented with extensive motor disabilities. Method: The technology served to present letters, in groups, at the centre of a computer screen and display (write) the letters selected by the man (i.e. through a simplified pointing response) on the upper half of that screen. Results: The results showed that the technology enabled the man to produce clear (readily readable) writing. This writing compared positively with the results obtained using a communication board containing the letters (i.e. a system already available to the man). Conclusion: Computer-aided technology may provide basic writing (communication) opportunities to persons emerged from a minimally conscious state and affected by extensive motor disabilities and lack of speech. © 2011 Informa UK Ltd. All Rights Reserved.


Lancioni G.E.,University of Bari | Singh N.N.,ONE Research Institute | O'Reilly M.F.,University of Texas at Austin | Sigafoos J.,Victoria University of Wellington | And 5 more authors.
Brain Injury | Year: 2010

Objective: To enable two persons with acquired brain injury and multiple (e.g. motor and visual) disabilities to communicate with distant partners through a special messaging technology, which served to send out text messages and read (listen to) incoming messages. Method: The study was carried out according to a multiple probe design across participants. Both participants (adults) started with baseline in which the technology was not available and continued with intervention in which the technology was used. The technology involved a net-book computer provided with specific software, a global system for mobile communication (GSM) modem, microswitches and pre-recorded lists of persons and messages. Results: The participants' mean frequencies of messages sent out and received per 30-minute session were about three and two, respectively, during baseline and seven and four, respectively, during the intervention. All baseline messages were sent and received with guidance. Nearly all intervention messages were sent and received (listened to) independently by the participants. Conclusions: Special messaging technology may help persons with multiple disabilities acquire high levels of independent, basic communication with distant partners. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved.


Lancioni G.E.,University of Bari | Singh N.N.,ONE Research Institute | O'Reilly M.F.,University of Texas at Austin | Alberti G.,Lega ro Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Developmental Neurorehabilitation | Year: 2011

Objective: Extending the use of microswitch-based programmes to (a) establish mouth-drying responses and reduce the effects of drooling, (b) assess the possibility of widening inter-response intervals and (c) determine whether different microswitch solutions would impact the accuracy/effectiveness of mouth drying. Method: During the intervention phases of the study, the participant (woman) performed mouth-drying responses via a special napkin. Such napkin contained two pressure sensors/microswitches, a microprocessor and an MP3 serving to monitor responses and ensure stimulation contingent on them. Results: The participant (a) learned to dry her mouth and reduce her chin wetness, (b) stabilized her responding at lower frequencies (i.e. when the stimulation period was extended) and (c) produced more accurate/effective responses when she was required to trigger both sensors of the napkin. Conclusion: Microswitch-based programmes may promote practically sustainable and effective mouth drying to reduce drooling effects in persons with multiple disabilities. © 2011 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved.


Lancioni G.,University of Bari | O'Reilly M.,University of Texas at Austin | Singh N.,ONE Research Institute | Green V.,Victoria University of Wellington | And 4 more authors.
Developmental Neurorehabilitation | Year: 2010

Objective: To assess the effectiveness and acceptability of microswitch technology and a keyboard emulator to enable three participants with extensive neuro-motor disabilities to write words. Method: In Study I, two participants triggered an automatic scanning keyboard and selected/wrote letters via a small sliding movement of their hand(s) activating a touch/pressure panel (microswitch). In Study II, a third participant used the sliding movement and panel and a vocalization response with a voice-detecting microswitch. The sliding movement allowed her to light up the keyboard and select the letters and the vocalization to perform the scanning. Results: Participants showed a better performance (shorter writing time) or an equally effective but less tiring performance with the new microswitch technology and response(s). They also preferred using this technology, and social validation ratings favoured such technology over previous solutions. Conclusion: The aforementioned technology may be useful to enable persons with extensive neuro-motor disabilities to write successfully. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved.

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