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Andic S.,Yuzuncu Yidotlessl University | Tuncturk Y.,Yuzuncu Yidotlessl University | Genccelep H.,Ondokuz Mayidotlesss University
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2011

The effects of packaging methods (nonvacuum and vacuum) on biogenic amines (cadaverine, putrescine, tyramine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine, and histamine) and organic acids (citric, lactic, formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric) during storage for 180 d at 4°C were investigated in Kashar cheese. Dry matter, titratable acidity, total nitrogen, water-soluble nitrogen, trichloroacetic acid-soluble nitrogen, phosphotungstic acid-soluble nitrogen, free amino group (proteolysis), pH, fat, and acid degree value were also determined. Storage period had a significant effect on all of the biogenic amines. When compared with vacuum packaging, nonvacuum packaging resulted in no large differences among the amounts of biogenic amines. Vacuum-packaged cheeses had more lactic, formic, acetic, and butyric acids than did cheeses packaged without vacuum. Water-soluble nitrogen, trichloroacetic acid-soluble nitrogen, phosphotungstic acid-soluble nitrogen, proteolysis, pH, and acid degree values of the cheese samples increased continuously until the end of the ripening in all the samples. No significant change was observed in total nitrogen, dry matter, or fat content within the ripening period, whereas titratable acidity values changed significantly in vacuum-packaged cheese and decreased slightly in the non-vacuum-packaged cheeses. The results of this study showed that storage period and packaging method had significant effects on the quality of Kashar cheese. © 2011 American Dairy Science Association.

Akbal F.,Ondokuz Mayidotlesss University | Camcidotless S.,Ondokuz Mayidotlesss University
Desalination | Year: 2011

Removal of copper (Cu), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) from metal plating wastewater by electrocoagulation with iron and aluminum electrodes with monopolar configurations was investigated. The influence of electrode material, current density, wastewater pH and conductivity on removal performance was explored. The results showed that metal removal increased with increasing current density, pH and conductivity. The efficiency of different electrode materials (iron, aluminum) was compared. The results indicated that electrocoagulation with an Fe-Al electrode pair was very efficient and was able to achieve 100% Cu, 100% Cr and 100% Ni removal at an electrocoagulation time of 20min, a current density of 10mA/cm2 and a pH of 3.0. Corresponding energy and electrode consumptions were determined as 10.07kWh/m3 and 1.08kg/m3, respectively. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Turan N.G.,Ondokuz Mayidotlesss University | Mesci B.,Ondokuz Mayidotlesss University | Ozgonenel O.,Ondokuz Mayidotlesss University
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2011

In this present work, artificial neural networks (ANN) are applied for the prediction of percentage adsorption efficiency for the removal of Cu(II) ions from industrial leachate by pumice. The effect of operational parameters such as initial pH, adsorbent dosage, temperature, and contact time is studied to optimize the conditions for maximum removal of Cu(II) ions. The model is first developed using a three layer feed forward backpropagation network with 4, 8 and 4 neurons in first, second and third layers, respectively. Furthermore, radial basis function (RBF) network is also proposed and its performance is compared to traditional network type. A comparison between the ANN models presents high correlation coefficient (R 2=0.999) and shows that the RBF network model is able to predict the removal of Cu(II) from industrial leachate more accurately. © 2011.

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