Seeber A.,Innsbruck Medical University |
Seeber A.,Tyrolean Cancer Research Institute |
Seeber A.,Oncotyrol Center for Personalized Cancer Medicine |
Braicu I.,European Competence Center for Ovarian Cancer |
And 17 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2015
EpCAM is an attractive target for cancer therapy and the EpCAM-specific antibody catumaxomab has been used for intraperitoneal treatment of EpCAM-positive cancer patients with malignant ascites. New prognostic markers are necessary to select patients that mostly benefit from catumaxomab. Recent data showed that soluble EpCAM (sEpCAM) is capable to block the effect of catumaxomab in vitro. This exploratory retrospective analysis was performed on archived ascites samples to evaluate the predictive role of sEpCAM in catumaxomab-treated patients. Sixty-six catumaxomab-treated patients with an available archived ascites sample were included in this study and tested for sEpCAM by sandwich ELISA. All probes were sampled before treatment start and all patients received at least one catumaxomab infusion. Overall survival, puncture-free survival and time to next puncture were compared between sEpCAM-positive and -negative patients. We detected sEpCAM in ascites samples of 9 patients (13.6%). These patients showed a significantly shorter overall survival. The prognostic significance of sEpCAM in ascites was particularly strong in patients with ovarian cancer. Puncture-free survival and time to next puncture were not significantly different between sEpCAM-positive and -negative patients. We propose sEpCAM in malignant ascites as a potential predictive marker in cancer patients treated with catumaxomab. Prospective studies with larger patients samples are urgently needed to confirm these findings and studies testing dose-intensified catumaxomab in patients with sEpCAM-positive ascites should be envisaged.
Deuffic-Burban S.,University of Lille Nord de France |
Deltenre P.,Service des Maladies de lAppareil Digestif et de la Nutrition |
Buti M.,CIBER ISCIII |
Parkes J.,University of Southampton |
And 10 more authors.
Gastroenterology | Year: 2012
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The dynamics of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, as well as screening practices and access to therapy, vary among European countries. It is important to determine the magnitude of the effects of such differences on incidence and mortality of infection. We compared the dynamics of infection and screening and treatment practices among Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. We also assessed the effects of treatment with pegylated interferon and additional effects of triple therapy with protease inhibitors. METHODS: We created a country-specific Markov model of HCV progression based on published epidemiologic data (on HCV prevalence, screening, genotype, alcohol consumption among patients, and treatments) and reports of competitive and hepatocellular carcinoma mortality for the 6 countries. The model was used to predict the incidence of HCV-related cirrhosis and its mortality until 2021 for each country. RESULTS: From 2002 to 2011, antiviral therapy reduced the cumulative incidence of cirrhosis by 7.1% and deaths by 3.4% overall. Reductions in incidence and mortality values ranged from 4.0% and 1.9%, respectively, in Italy to 16.3% and 9.0%, respectively, in France. From 2012 to 2021, antiviral treatment of patients with HCV genotype 1 infection that includes protease inhibitor-based triple therapy will reduce the cumulative incidence of cirrhosis by 17.7% and mortality by 9.7% overall. The smallest reduction is predicted for Italy (incidence reduced by 10.1% and mortality by 5.4%) and the highest is for France (reductions of 34.3% and 20.7%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although HCV infection is treated with the same therapies in different countries, the effects of the therapies on morbidity and mortality vary significantly. In addition to common guidelines that are based on virologic response-guided therapy, there is a need for public health policies based on population-guided therapy. © 2012 AGA Institute.
Fong D.,Tyrolean Cancer Research Institute |
Fong D.,Innsbruck Medical University |
Fong D.,Franz Tappeiner Hospital |
Fong D.,Oncotyrol Center for Personalized Cancer Medicine |
And 17 more authors.
Histopathology | Year: 2014
Aims: Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a widely used immunohistochemical marker for epithelial human malignancies. Antibodies to target EpCAM are usually directed against its ectodomain (EpEX), but do not detect the intracellular domain (EpICD). The aim of this study was to compare membranous EpEX versus EpICD expression by immunohistochemistry. Methods and results: Concurrent EpEX and EpICD expression was investigated retrospectively in cancerous and matched non-neoplastic tissue samples from patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In total, 317 paired samples of pancreatic tissue from 88 patients were analysed and correlated with clinicopathological parameters. In non-cancerous tissue, a high concordance of membranous EpEX and EpICD expression was observed and defined as the expression of the full-length EpCAM (EpEX+/EpICD+ phenotype, EpCAMMF), which was highly predominant. In contrast, while most tumour samples were EpEX positive, loss of membranous EpICD expression (EpEX+/EpICD- phenotype, EpCAMMT) was observed in one-third of cases, and these patients had a significantly shortened disease-free and overall survival. Conclusions: This study demonstrates for the first time that loss of membranous EpICD expression is a frequent event and predicts poor prognosis in patients with pancreatic cancer. Additional studies evaluating the predictive and prognostic value of the expression of different membranous EpCAM variants are warranted in epithelial cancers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Siebert U.,UMIT University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology |
Siebert U.,Oncotyrol Center for Personalized Cancer Medicine |
Siebert U.,Boston University |
Alagoz O.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
And 7 more authors.
Value in Health | Year: 2012
State-transition modeling is an intuitive, flexible, and transparent approach of computer-based decision-analytic modeling including both Markov model cohort simulation and individual-based (first-order Monte Carlo) microsimulation. Conceptualizing a decision problem in terms of a set of (health) states and transitions among these states, state-transition modeling is one of the most widespread modeling techniques in clinical decision analysis, health technology assessment, and health-economic evaluation. State-transition models have been used in many different populations and diseases, and their applications range from personalized health care strategies to public health programs. Most frequently, state-transition models are used in the evaluation of risk factor interventions, screening, diagnostic procedures, treatment strategies, and disease management programs. The goal of this article was to provide consensus-based guidelines for the application of state-transition models in the context of health care. We structured the best practice recommendations in the following sections: choice of model type (cohort vs. individual-level model), model structure, model parameters, analysis, reporting, and communication. In each of these sections, we give a brief description, address the issues that are of particular relevance to the application of state-transition models, give specific examples from the literature, and provide best practice recommendations for state-transition modeling. These recommendations are directed both to modelers and to users of modeling results such as clinicians, clinical guideline developers, manufacturers, or policymakers. © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR).
Ammenwerth E.,UMIT University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology |
Schnell-Inderst P.,UMIT University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology |
Schnell-Inderst P.,Oncotyrol Center for Personalized Cancer Medicine |
Hoerbst A.,UMIT University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology
Journal of Medical Internet Research | Year: 2012
Background: Modern information technology is changing and provides new challenges to health care. The emergence of the Internet and the electronic health record (EHR) has brought new opportunities for patients to play a more active role in his/her care. Although in many countries patients have the right to access their clinical information, access to clinical records electronically is not common. Patient portals consist of provider-tethered applications that allow patients to electronically access health information that are documented and managed by a health care institution. Although patient portals are already being implemented, it is still unclear in which ways these technologies can influence patient care. Objective: To systematically review the available evidence on the impact of electronic patient portals on patient care. Methods: A systematic search was conducted using PubMed and other sources to identify controlled experimental or quasi-experimental studies on the impact of patient portals that were published between 1990 and 2011. A total of 1,306 references from all the publication hits were screened, and 13 papers were retrieved for full text analysis. Results: We identified 5 papers presenting 4 distinct studies. There were no statistically significant changes between intervention and control group in the 2 randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of patient portals on health outcomes. Significant changes in the patient portal group, compared to a control group, could be observed for the following parameters: quicker decrease in office visit rates and slower increase in telephone contacts; increase in number of messages sent; changes of the medication regimen; and better adherence to treatment. Conclusions: The number of available controlled studies with regard to patient portals is low. Even when patient portals are often discussed as a way to empower patients and improve quality of care, there is insufficient evidence to support this assumption.
Luce B.R.,United Biosource Corporation |
Luce B.R.,University of Washington |
Drummond M.F.,University of York |
Dubois R.W.,National Pharmaceutical Council |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research | Year: 2012
Aims: To develop principles for planning and conducting comparative effectiveness research (CER). Methods: Beginning with a modified existing list of health technology assessment principles, we developed a set of CER principles using literature review, engagement of multiple experts and broad stakeholder feedback. Results & conclusion: Thirteen principles and actions to fulfill their intent are proposed. Principles include clarity of objectives, transparency, engagement of stakeholders, consideration of relevant perspectives, use of relevant comparators, and evaluation of relevant outcomes and treatment heterogeneity. Should these principles be found appropriate and useful, CER studies should be audited for adherence to them and monitored for their impact on care management, patient relevant outcomes and clinical guidelines. © 2012 Future Medicine Ltd.
An indirect comparison of the efficacy of bevacizumab plus carboplatin and paclitaxel versus pemetrexed with cisplatin in patients with advanced or recurrent non-squamous adenocarcinoma non-small cell lung cancer
Nuijten M.J.C.,Ars Accessus Medica |
Aultman R.,Hoffmann-La Roche |
Carpeo J.D.C.,Hospital Universitario La Paz |
Vergnengre A.,Hpital du Cluzeau |
And 4 more authors.
Current Medical Research and Opinion | Year: 2011
Objective: There are two new treatment options available for the treatment of adenocarcinoma histology non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) which offer improved benefit in terms of progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) over chemotherapy. Both bevacizumab and pemetrexed when combined with chemotherapy significantly increase PFS and OS in patients with advanced NSCLC versus chemotherapy alone. The aim of this analysis was to compare the efficacy for patients with non-squamous adenocarcinoma NSCLC treated with bevacizumab, carboplatin and paclitaxel (BCP) to pemetrexed and cisplatin (PC) by using indirect comparison (ITC) methodology. Experimental design: In the absence of head-to-head trials, ITC was performed on patients with adenocarcinoma histology non-squamous NSCLC to compare the relative benefit of first-line therapies BCP vs. PC by hazard ratios (HR). Subsequently, these HRs were used in a decision-analytic Markov model with a lifelong time horizon to extrapolate the long-term effectiveness of the two treatments. Results: ITC estimated HRs for the primary endpoints in the bevacizumab study E4599 showed that BCP treatment in non-squamous adenocarcinoma NSCLC patients resulted in a BCP HR of 0.82 versus PC. The long-term predictions from the Markov model yielded a mean survival of 1.48 years (95% CI 1.34, 1.62 years) (or 17.7 months) for BCP compared with 1.29 years (95% CI 1.16, 1.42 years) (or 15.4 months) for PC. Conclusions: Based on our decision analysis, triplet BCP targeted therapy in patients with advanced non-squamous adenocarcinoma NSCLC compared with doublet PC chemotherapy results in improved expected values for overall long-term survival. Therefore, from the efficacy perspective, bevacizumab in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy can be considered as the targeted therapy of choice for patients with advanced non-squamous adenocarcinoma NSCLC. © 2011 Informa UK Ltd.
Oberaigner W.,TILAK GmbH |
Oberaigner W.,University of Medical Sciences and Technology |
Oberaigner W.,Oncotyrol Center for Personalized Cancer Medicine |
Siebert U.,University of Medical Sciences and Technology |
And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012
Objectives: The objective of this study was to update an in-depth analysis of the time trend for prostate cancer (PCA) mortality in the population of Tyrol by 5 years, namely to 2008. In Tyrol, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests were introduced in 1988/89; more than three-quarters of all men in the age group 45-74 had at least one PSA test in the past decade. Methods: We applied the same model as in a previous publication, i.e., an age-period-cohort model using Poisson regression, to the mortality data covering more than three decades from 1970 to 2008. Results: For Tyrol from 2004 to 2008 in the age group 60+ period terms show a significant reduction in prostate cancer mortality with a risk ratio of 0.70 (95% confidence interval 0.57, 0.87) for Tyrol, and for Austria excluding Tyrol a moderate reduction with a risk ratio of 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.87, 0.97), each compared to the mortality rate in the period 1989-1993. Conclusions: This update strengthens our previously published results, namely that PSA testing offered to a population at no charge can reduce prostate cancer mortality. The extent of mortality reduction is in line with that reported in the other recent publications. However, our data do not permit us to fully assess the harms associated with PCA screening, and no recommendation for PSA screening can be made without a careful evaluation of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. © 2011 The Author(s).
Hannesdottir L.,Innsbruck Medical University |
Tymoszuk P.,Innsbruck Medical University |
Parajuli N.,Innsbruck Medical University |
Wasmer M.-H.,Innsbruck Medical University |
And 12 more authors.
European Journal of Immunology | Year: 2013
The dual erbB1/2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib as well as the anthracycline doxorubicin are both used in the therapy of HER2-positive breast cancer. Using MMTV-neu mice as an animal model for HER2-positive breast cancer, we observed enhanced tumor infiltration by IFN-γ-secreting T cells after treatment with doxorubicin and/or lapatinib. Antibody depletion experiments revealed a contribution of CD8+ but not CD4+ T cells to the antitumor effect of these drugs. Doxorubicin treatment additionally decreased the content of immunosuppressive tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the tumor bed. In contrast, Stat1-deficient mice were resistant to tumor growth inhibition by lapatinib and/or doxorubicin and exhibited impaired T-cell activation and reduced T-cell infiltration of the tumor in response to drug treatment. Furthermore, Stat1-deficiency resulted in reduced expression of the T-cell chemotactic factors CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 in the tumor epithelium. The inhibition of TAM infiltration of the tumor by doxorubicin and the immunosuppressive function of TAMs were found to be Stat1 independent. Taken together, the results point to an important contribution toward enhancing T-cell and IFN-γ-based immunity by lapatinib as well as doxorubicin and emphasize the role of Stat1 in building an effective antitumor immune response. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Romani N.,Innsbruck Medical University |
Romani N.,Oncotyrol Center for Personalized Cancer Medicine |
Flacher V.,Innsbruck Medical University |
Tripp C.H.,Innsbruck Medical University |
And 5 more authors.
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology | Year: 2012
Vaccinations in medicine are typically administered into the muscle beneath the skin or into the subcutaneous fat. As a consequence, the vaccine is immunologically processed by antigen-presenting cells of the skin or the muscle. Recent evidence suggests that the clinically seldom used intradermal route is effective and possibly even superior to the conventional subcutaneous or intramuscular route. Several types of professional antigen-presenting cells inhabit the healthy skin. Epidermal Langerhans cells (CD207/langerin +), dermal langerin neg, and dermal langerin + dendritic cells (DC) have been described, the latter subset so far only in mouse skin. In human skin langerin neg dermal DC can be further classified based on their reciprocal expression of CD1a and CD14. The relative contributions of these subsets to the generation of immunity or tolerance are still unclear. Yet, specializations of these different populations have become apparent. Langerhans cells in human skin appear to be specialized for induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes; human CD14 + dermal DC can promote antibody production by B cells. It is currently attempted to rationally devise and improve vaccines by harnessing such specific properties of skin DC. This could be achieved by specifically targeting functionally diverse skin DC subsets. We discuss here advances in our knowledge on the immunological properties of skin DC and strategies to significantly improve the outcome of vaccinations by applying this knowledge. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.