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Rockville, MD, United States

Catenacci D.V.T.,University of Chicago | Liao W.-L.,OncoPlex Diagnostics Inc. | Liao W.-L.,NantOmics LLC | Zhao L.,University of Chicago | And 24 more authors.
Gastric Cancer

Background: Trastuzumab has shown a survival benefit in cases of Her2-positive gastroesophageal cancer (GEC). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) currently determine eligibility for trastuzumab-based therapy. However, these low-throughput assays often produce discordant or equivocal results. Methods: We developed a targeted proteomic assay based on selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) and quantified levels (amol/μg) of Her2-SRM protein in cell lines (n = 27) and GEC tissues (n = 139). We compared Her2-SRM protein expression with IHC/FISH, seeking to determine optimal SRM protein expression cutoffs in order to identify HER2 gene amplification. Results: After demonstrating assay development, precision, and stability, Her2-SRM protein measurement was observed to be highly concordant with the HER2/CEP17 ratio, particularly in a multivariate regression model adjusted for SRM expression of the covariates Met, Egfr, Her3, and HER2 heterogeneity, as well as their interactions (cell lines r2 = 0.9842; FFPE r2 = 0.7643). In GEC tissues, Her2-SRM protein was detected at any level in 71.2 % of cases. ROC curves demonstrated that Her2-SRM protein levels have a high specificity (100 %) at an upper-level cutoff of >750 amol/µg and sensitivity of 75 % at a lower-level cutoff of <450 amol/μg for identifying HER2 FISH-amplified tumors. An “equivocal zone” of 450–750 amol/µg of Her2-SRM protein was analogous to IHC2+ but represented fewer cases (9–16 % of cases versus 36–41 %). Conclusions: Compared to IHC, targeted SRM-Her2 proteomics provided more objective and quantitative Her2 expression with excellent HER2/CEP17 FISH correlation and fewer equivocal cases. Along with its multiplex capability for other relevant oncoproteins, these results demonstrate a refined HER2 protein expression assay for clinical application. © 2015 The International Gastric Cancer Association and The Japanese Gastric Cancer Association Source

Hembrough T.,OncoPlex Diagnostics Inc. | Thyparambil S.,OncoPlex Diagnostics Inc. | Liao W.-L.,OncoPlex Diagnostics Inc. | Darfler M.M.,OncoPlex Diagnostics Inc. | And 14 more authors.
Clinical Proteomics

Background: Analysis of key therapeutic targets such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in clinical tissue samples is typically done by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and is only subjectively quantitative through a narrow dynamic range. The development of a standardized, highly-sensitive, linear, and quantitative assay for EGFR for use in patient tumor tissue carries high potential for identifying those patients most likely to benefit from EGFR-targeted therapies. Methods: A mass spectrometry-based Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) assay for the EGFR protein (EGFR-SRM) was developed utilizing the Liquid Tissue®-SRM technology platform. Tissue culture cells (n = 4) were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to establish quantitative EGFR levels. Matching formalin fixed cultures were analyzed by the EGFR-SRM assay and benchmarked against immunoassay of the non-fixed cultured cells. Xenograft human tumor tissue (n = 10) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) origin and NSCLC patient tumor tissue samples (n = 23) were microdissected and the EGFR-SRM assay performed on Liquid Tissue lysates prepared from microdissected tissue. Quantitative curves and linear regression curves for correlation between immunoassay and SRM methodology were developed in Excel. Results: The assay was developed for quantitation of a single EGFR tryptic peptide for use in FFPE patient tissue with absolute specificity to uniquely distinguish EGFR from all other proteins including the receptor tyrosine kinases, IGF-1R, cMet, Her2, Her3, and Her4. The assay was analytically validated against a collection of tissue culture cell lines where SRM analysis of the formalin fixed cells accurately reflects EGFR protein levels in matching non-formalin fixed cultures as established by ELISA sandwich immunoassay (R2 = 0.9991). The SRM assay was applied to a collection of FFPE NSCLC xenograft tumors where SRM data range from 305amol/μg to 12,860amol/μg and are consistent with EGFR protein levels in these tumors as previously-reported by western blot and SRM analysis of the matched frozen tissue. In addition, the SRM assay was applied to a collection of histologically-characterized FFPE NSCLC patient tumor tissue where EGFR levels were quantitated from not detected (ND) to 670amol/μg. Conclusions: This report describes and evaluates the performance of a robust and reproducible SRM assay designed for measuring EGFR directly in FFPE patient tumor tissue with accuracy at extremely low (attomolar) levels. This assay can be used as part of a complementary or companion diagnostic strategy to support novel therapies currently under development and demonstrates the potential to identify candidates for EGFR-inhibitor therapy. © 2012 Hembrough et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Hembrough T.,OncoPlex Diagnostics Inc. | Thyparambil S.,OncoPlex Diagnostics Inc. | Liao W.-L.,OncoPlex Diagnostics Inc. | Darfler M.M.,OncoPlex Diagnostics Inc. | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Diagnostics

One of the critical gaps in the clinical diagnostic space is the lack of quantitative proteomic methods for use on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. Herein, we describe the development of a quantitative, multiplexed, mass spectrometry-based selected reaction monitoring (SRM) assay for four therapeutically important targets: epidermal growth factor receptor, human EGF receptor (HER)-2, HER3, and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor. These assays were developed using the Liquid Tissue-SRM technology platform, in which FFPE tumor tissues were microdissected, completely solubilized, and then subjected to multiplexed quantitation by SRM mass spectrometry. The assays were preclinically validated by comparing Liquid Tissue-SRM quantitation of FFPE cell lines with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay/electrochemiluminescence quantitation of fresh cells (R2 > 0.95). Clinical performance was assessed on two cohorts of breast cancer tissue: one cohort of 10 samples with a wide range of HER2 expression and a second cohort of 19 HER2 IHC 3+ tissues. These clinical data demonstrate the feasibility of quantitative, multiplexed clinical analysis of proteomic markers in FFPE tissue. Our findings represent a significant advancement in cancer tissue analysis because multiplexed, quantitative analysis of protein targets in FFPE tumor tissue can be tailored to specific oncological indications to provide the following: i) complementary support for anatomical pathological diagnoses, ii) patient stratification to optimize treatment outcomes and identify drug resistance, and iii) support for the clinical development of novel therapies. © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Catenacci D.V.T.,University of Chicago | Liao W.-L.,OncoPlex Diagnostics Inc. | Thyparambil S.,OncoPlex Diagnostics Inc. | Henderson L.,University of Chicago | And 15 more authors.

Background: Overexpression of Met tyrosine kinase receptor is associated with poor prognosis. Overexpression, and particularly MET amplification, are predictive of response to Met-specific therapy in preclinical models. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues is currently used to select for 'high Met' expressing tumors for Met inhibitor trials. IHC suffers from antibody non-specificity, lack of quantitative resolution, and, when quantifying multiple proteins, inefficient use of scarce tissue. Methods: After describing the development of the Liquid-Tissue-Selected Reaction Monitoring-mass spectrometry (LT-SRM-MS) Met assay, we evaluated the expression level of Met in 130 FFPE gastroesophageal cancer (GEC) tissues. We assessed the correlation of SRM Met expression to IHC and mean MET gene copy number (GCN)/nucleus or MET/CEP7 ratio by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Results: Proteomic mapping of recombinant Met identified 418TEFTTALQR426 as the optimal SRM peptide. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) for this peptide were 150 and 200 amol/μg tumor protein, respectively. The assay demonstrated excellent precision and temporal stability of measurements in serial sections analyzed one year apart. Expression levels of 130 GEC tissues ranged (<150 amol/μg to 4669.5 amol/μg. High correlation was observed between SRM Met expression and both MET GCN and MET/CEP7 ratio as determined by FISH (n = 30; R2 = 0.898). IHC did not correlate well with SRM (n = 44; R2 = 0.537) nor FISH GCN (n = 31; R2 = 0.509). A Met SRM level of ≥1500 amol/μg was 100% sensitive (95% CI 0.69-1) and 100% specific (95% CI 0.92-1) for MET amplification. Conclusions: The Met SRM assay measured the absolute Met levels in clinical tissues with high precision. Compared to IHC, SRM provided a quantitative and linear measurement of Met expression, reliably distinguishing between non-amplified and amplified MET tumors. These results demonstrate a novel clinical tool for efficient tumor expression profiling, potentially leading to better informed therapeutic decisions for patients with GEC. Source

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