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Nishi-Tokyo-shi, Japan

Patent
Kansai Technology Licensing Organization Co. and Oncolys Biopharma Inc. | Date: 2010-07-19

By using a virus having a gene sequence comprising a telomerase promoter and an E1 gene (preferably a sequence comprising E1A gene, IRES sequence and E1B gene) or by using an anticancer agent comprising the virus, the virus replicates in cancer cells to thereby produce an efficient anticancer effect.


Shigeyasu K.,Okayama University of Science | Tazawa H.,Okayama University of Science | Tazawa H.,Okayama University | Hashimoto Y.,Okayama University of Science | And 9 more authors.
Gut | Year: 2015

Background Molecular-based companion diagnostic tests are being used with increasing frequency to predict their clinical response to various drugs, particularly for molecularly targeted drugs. However, invasive procedures are typically required to obtain tissues for this analysis. Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are novel biomarkers that can be used for the prediction of disease progression and are also important surrogate sources of cancer cells. Because current CTC detection strategies mainly depend on epithelial cell-surface markers, the presence of heterogeneous populations of CTCs with epithelial and/or mesenchymal characteristics may pose obstacles to the detection of CTCs. Methods We developed a new approach to capture live CTCs among millions of peripheral blood leukocytes using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing attenuated adenovirus, in which the telomerase promoter regulates viral replication (OBP-401, TelomeScan). Results Our biological capturing system can image epithelial and mesenchymal tumour cells with telomerase activities as GFP-positive cells. After sorting, direct sequencing or mutation-specific PCR can precisely detect different mutations in KRAS, BRAF and KIT genes in epithelial, mesenchymal or epithelial-mesenchymal transition-induced CTCs, and in clinical blood samples from patients with colorectal cancer. Conclusions This fluorescence virus-guided viable CTC capturing method provides a non-invasive alternative to tissue biopsy or surgical resection of primary tumours for companion diagnostics. Source


Yano S.,Okayama University of Science | Tazawa H.,Okayama University | Hashimoto Y.,Okayama University of Science | Shirakawa Y.,Okayama University of Science | And 10 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Purpose: Because chemoradiotherapy selectively targets proliferating cancer cells, quiescent cancer stem-like cells are resistant. Mobilization of the cell cycle in quiescent leukemia stem cells sensitizes them to cell death signals. However, it is unclear that mobilization of the cell cycle can eliminate quiescent cancer stem-like cells in solid cancers. Thus, we explored the use of a genetically-engineered telomerase-specific oncolytic adenovirus, OBP-301, to mobilize the cell cycle and kill quiescent cancer stem-like cells. Experimental Design: We established CD133+ cancer stem-like cells from human gastric cancer MKN45 and MKN7 cells. We investigated the efficacy of OBP-301 against quiescent cancer stem-like cells. We visualized the treatment dynamics of OBP-301 killing of quiescent cancer stem-like cells in dormant tumor spheres and xenografts using a fluorescent ubiquitination cell-cycle indicator (FUCCI). Results: CD133+ gastric cancer cells had stemness properties. OBP-301 efficiently killed CD133+ cancer stem-like cells resistant to chemoradiotherapy. OBP-301 induced cell-cycle mobilization from G 0-G1to S/G2/M phases and subsequent cell death in quiescent CD133+ cancer stem-like cells by mobilizing cellcycle-related proteins. FUCCI enabled visualization of quiescent CD133 + cancer stem-like cells and proliferating CD133+ non-cancer stem-like cells. Three-dimensional visualization of the cell-cycle behavior in tumor spheres showed that CD133+ cancer stem-like cells maintained stemness by remaining in G0-G1 phase. We showed that OBP-301 mobilized quiescent cancer stem-like cells in tumor spheres and xenografts into S/G2/M phases where they lost viability and cancer stem-like cell properties and became chemosensitive. Conclusion: Oncolytic adenoviral infection is an effective mechanism of cancer cell killing in solid cancer and can be a new therapeutic paradigm to eliminate quiescent cancer stem-like cells. © 2013 American Association for Cancer Research. Source


Hashimoto Y.,Okayama University | Tazawa H.,Okayama University | Teraishi F.,Okayama University | Kojima T.,Okayama University | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Hypoxia is a microenvironmental factor that contributes to the invasion, progression and metastasis of tumor cells. Hypoxic tumor cells often show more resistance to conventional chemoradiotherapy than normoxic tumor cells, suggesting the requirement of novel antitumor therapies to efficiently eliminate the hypoxic tumor cells. We previously generated a tumor-specific replication-competent oncolytic adenovirus (OBP-301: Telomelysin), in which the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter drives viral E1 expression. Since the promoter activity of the hTERT gene has been shown to be upregulated by hypoxia, we hypothesized that, under hypoxic conditions, the antitumor effect of OBP-301 with the hTERT promoter would be more efficient than that of the wild-type adenovirus 5 (Ad5). In this study, we investigated the antitumor effects of OBP-301 and Ad5 against human cancer cells under a normoxic (20% oxygen) or a hypoxic (1% oxygen) condition. Hypoxic condition induced nuclear accumulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and upregulation of hTERT promoter activity in human cancer cells. The cytopathic activity of OBP-301 was significantly higher than that of Ad5 under hypoxic condition. Consistent with their cytopathic activity, the replication of OBP-301 was significantly higher than that of Ad5 under the hypoxic condition. OBP-301-mediated E1A was expressed within hypoxic areas of human xenograft tumors in mice. These results suggest that the cytopathic activity of OBP-301 against hypoxic tumor cells is mediated through hypoxia-mediated activation of the hTERT promoter. Regulation of oncolytic adenoviruses by the hTERT promoter is a promising antitumor strategy, not only for induction of tumor-specific oncolysis, but also for efficient elimination of hypoxic tumor cells. © 2012 Hashimoto et al. Source


Kuroda S.,Okayama University of Science | Kuroda S.,University of Houston | Urata Y.,Oncolys BioPharma Inc. | Fujiwara T.,Okayama University of Science
Acta Medica Okayama | Year: 2012

Radiotherapy plays a central part in cancer treatment, and use of radiosensitizing agents can greatly enhance this modality. Although studies have shown that several chemotherapeutic agents have the potential to increase the radiosensitivity of tumor cells, investigators have also studied a number of molecularly targeted agents as radiosensitizers in clinical trials based on reasonably promising pre-clinical data. Recent intense research into the DNA damage-signaling pathway revealed that ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and the Mrell-Rad50-NBSl (MRN) complex play central roles in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints and that these molecules are promising targets for radiosensitization. Researchers recently developed three ATM inhibitors (KU-55933, CGK733, and CP466722) and an MRN complex inhibitor (mirin) and showed that they have great potential as radiosensitizers of tumors in preclinical studies. Additionally, we showed that a telomerase-dependent oncolytic adenovirus that we developed (OBP-301 [telomelysin]) produces profound radiosensitizing effects by inhibiting the MRN complex via the adenoviral ElB55kDa protein. A recent Phase I trial in the United States determined that telomelysin was safe and well tolerated in humans, and this agent is about to be tested in combination with radiotherapy in a clinical trial based on intriguing preclinical data demonstrating that telomelysin and ionizing radiation can potentiate each other. In this review, we highlight the great potential of ATM and MRN complex inhibitors, including telomelysin, as radiosensitizing agents. Source

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