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Altomonte M.,University of Siena | Di Giacomo A.M.,University of Siena | Queirolo P.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Ascierto P.A.,Unit of Melanoma | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Background: Patients with advanced melanoma are faced with a poor prognosis and, until recently, limited treatment options. Ipilimumab, a novel immunotherapy that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4, was the first agent to improve survival of patients with advanced melanoma in a randomised, controlled phase 3 trial. We used data from an expanded access programme (EAP) at Italian centres to evaluate the clinical activity and safety profile of ipilimumab 10 mg/kg in patients with advanced melanoma in a setting more similar to that of daily practice. Methods. Data were collected from patients enrolled in an ipilimumab EAP across eight participating Italian centres. As per the EAP protocol, patients had life-threatening, unresectable stage III/IV melanoma, had failed or did not tolerate previous treatments and had no other therapeutic option available. Treatment comprised ipilimumab 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks for a total of four doses. If physicians believed patients would continue to derive benefit from ipilimumab treatment, maintenance therapy with ipilimumab 10 mg/kg was provided every 12 weeks. Tumour responses were assessed every 12 weeks using modified World Health Organization criteria and safety continuously monitored. Results: Seventy-four pretreated patients with advanced melanoma were treated with ipilimumab 10 mg/kg. Of these, 9 (13.0%) had an objective response, comprising 3 patients with a complete response and 6 with a partial response. Median overall survival was 7.0 months (95% confidence interval, 5.3-8.7) and 16.6% of patients were alive after 3 years. Forty-five patients (60.8%) reported treatment-related adverse events of any grade, which were most commonly low-grade pruritus, pain, fever and diarrhoea. Grade 3 or 4 treatment-related AEs were reported in 8 patients (10.8%). Conclusions: The clinical activity and safety profile of ipilimumab 10 mg/kg in the EAP was similar to that seen in previous clinical trials of ipilimumab in pretreated patient populations. © 2013 Altomonte et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Loupakis F.,University of Southern California | Cremolini C.,Polo Oncologico | Yang D.,University of Southern California | Salvatore L.,Polo Oncologico | And 16 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Purpose: The potential impact of different SNPs of VEGF/VEGFR pathway on the clinical outcome of mCRC patients receiving bev-containing regimens has been investigated in retrospective experiences with contrasting results. We previously reported the association of VEGFA rs833061 C/T variants with PFS in metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with first-line FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab. The primary objective of this work was to prospectively validate that retrospective finding. A confirmatory analysis of other SNPs of VEGF/VEGFR pathway genes was included. Experimental design: To detect a HR for PFS of 1.7 for VEGFA rs833061 T/T compared to C- variants in metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with first-line FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab, setting two-sided α = 0.05 and β = 0.20, 199 events were required. VEGFA rs699946 A/G, rs699947 A/C, VEGFR1 rs9582036 A/C and rs7993418 A/G, VEGFR2 rs11133360 C/T, rs12505758 C/T and rs2305948 C/T and EPAS1 rs4145836 A/G were also tested. Germ-line DNA was extracted from peripheral blood. SNPs were analyzed by PCR and sequencing. Results: Four-hundred-twenty-four pts were included. At the univariate analysis, no differences according to VEGFA rs833061 C/T variants were observed in PFS (p = 0.38) or OS (p = 0.95). Among analyzed SNPs, only VEGFR2 rs12505758 C- variants, compared to T/T, were associated to shorter PFS (HR: 1.36 [1.05-1.75], p = 0.015, dominant genetic model) and OS, with a trend toward significance (HR: 1.34 [0.95-1.88], p = 0.088). In the multivariate model, this association retained significance (HR: 1.405 [1.082-1.825], p = 0.012) in PFS, that was lost by applying multiple testing correction (p = 0.14). Conclusion: This prospective experience failed to validate the hypothesized predictive impact of VEGFA rs833061 variants. Retrospective findings on different candidate SNPs were not confirmed. Only VEGFR2 rs12505758 variants, whose prognostic and not predictive impact was previously reported, correlated with PFS. Given the complexity of angiogenesis, it is rather unlike that a single germ-line SNP might be a good predictor of benefit from bevacizumab. © 2013 Loupakis et al.

Schirripa M.,University of Pisa | Cremolini C.,University of Pisa | Loupakis F.,University of Pisa | Morvillo M.,University of Pisa | And 13 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2015

NRAS mutations occur in 3-5% of colorectal cancer. Differently from KRAS and BRAF mutations, the role of NRAS mutations as prognostic and predictive markers in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) has been investigated to a lesser extent. A retrospective series suggested the role of NRAS mutations as predictors of resistance to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) in chemo-refractory patients with mCRC. In our study, KRAS codons 12, 13, 61 and BRAF codon 600 mutational status were evaluated in mCRCs referred to our Institution from 2009 to 2012. NRAS codons 12, 13 and 61 mutational status was analyzed in KRAS/BRAF wt patients. We collected pathological and clinical features in the overall population and outcome data in a subset of NRAS mutated chemo-refractory patients treated with anti-EGFR MoAbs in advanced lines. NRAS was mutated in 47/786 (6%) mCRCs. NRAS and KRAS mutated tumors did not show significant differences in terms of clinical and pathological characteristics, except for a lower prevalence of mucinous histology (p-‰=-‰0.012) and lung metastases (p-‰=-‰0.012) among NRAS mutated tumors. In the uni- and multivariate model, NRAS mutations were associated with shorter overall survival (OS) compared to all wt patients (median OS 25.6 vs 42.7 months; univ: HR-‰=-‰1.91, 95% CI 1.39-3.86, p-‰=-‰0.0013; multiv: HR-‰=-‰1.75, 95% CI 1.1.3-2.72, p-‰=-‰0.013). None of the chemo-refractory NRAS mutated patients evaluable for response to anti-EGFRs achieved response. In conclusion, NRAS mutations have a relevant incidence in patients with mCRC and showed an association with specific clinical and pathological features. NRAS mutations affect mCRC patients' prognosis and predict lack of response to anti-EGFRs. What's new? The RAS family of genes plays a key role in human cancers. While mutations in KRAS and BRAF have been widely studied. The clinico-pathological features and the prognostic impact of NRAS mutations are less known. Here the authors identify NRAS mutations in 6% of metastatic colorectal cancers. Clinical and pathological characteristics of NRAS-mutant tumors were similar to those with KRAS mutations. Moreover NRAS mutations functioned as reliable predictors of resistance to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody therapy. This study highlights the importance of including analysis of NRAS mutations into the molecular characterization of metastatic colorectal tumors. © 2014 UICC.

Loupakis F.,Unit of Medical Oncology 2 | Loupakis F.,University of Pisa | Cremolini C.,Unit of Medical Oncology 2 | Cremolini C.,University of Pisa | And 14 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Antiepidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) are indicated for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer patients, but some scientific issues concerning their efficacy are currently unsolved. METHODS: A literature-based meta-analysis was conducted. Hazard ratios (HRs) were extracted from randomized trials for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS); the event-based risk ratio was derived for response. Sensitivity analyses to look for interactions according to KRAS status and chemotherapy association regimens were performed. RESULTS: Eight trials (6609 patients) were identified. A significant interaction according to KRAS status was found for PFS (wild type vs mutant, P =.001) and response rate (wild type vs mutant, P <.0001). The addition of an anti-EGFR MoAb to first-line chemotherapy increased PFS in the KRAS wild-type population (HR, 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-0.99; P =.03), and had a detrimental effect in the KRAS mutant population (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.25; P =.013). A significant increase in the probability of achieving a response was evident in KRAS wild-type patients (relative risk, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.04-1.33; P =.011). In this population, the interaction in response rate according to adopted chemotherapy favored irinotecan-containing regimens (P =.01), and at meta-regression analysis the relative increase in response rate was significantly related to PFS (P =.00001) and OS (P =.00193) benefit. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of an anti-EGFR MoAb to first-line chemotherapy produces a clear benefit in response rate. This advantage is restricted to KRAS wild-type patients and translates into a small benefit in PFS. At present, irinotecan-based backbone chemotherapy could be a preferable option. The correlation between activity and survival parameters corroborates the hypothesis that anti-EGFR MoAbs might be more suitable for patients needing tumoral shrinkage. © 2011 American Cancer Society.

Fornaro L.,Unit of Medical Oncology 2 | Lonardi S.,Oncology Institute of Veneto | Masi G.,Unit of Medical Oncology 2 | Loupakis F.,Unit of Medical Oncology 2 | And 14 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2013

Background: The FOLFOXIRI regimen developed by the Gruppo Oncologico Nord Ovest (GONO) demonstrated higher activity and efficacy compared with FOLFIRI in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Panitumumab is effective in some patients with KRAS codon 12-13 wild-type mCRC. KRAS codon 61, HRAS, NRAS, and BRAF V600E mutations might predict resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies. Patients and methods: We conducted a phase II study evaluating the combination of panitumumab (6 mg/kg on day 1) with a slightly modified GONO-FOLFOXIRI (irinotecan 150 mg/m2, oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2, and folinate 200 mg/m2 on day 1, followed by fluorouracil 3000 mg/m2 as a 48-h continuous infusion starting on day 1) repeated every 2 weeks as first-line treatment of wild-type KRAS, HRAS, NRAS (codon 12-13-61), and BRAF unresectable mCRC patients. Fluorouracil dose was reduced to 2400 mg/m2 after two of the first three patients reported grade 3-4 diarrhoea (in one case with febrile neutropenia). Induction treatment was scheduled for a maximum of 12 cycles, followed by panitumumab ± fluorouracil/folinate maintenance until progression. Primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Results: Eighty-seven patients were screened and 37 were enrolled. Thirty-three patients achieved an objective response (ORR: 89%; 95% CI 75% to 96%). Sixteen patients (43%) underwent secondary surgery of metastases, and R0 resection was achieved in 13 cases (35%). At a median follow-up of 17.7 months, median progression-free survival was 11.3 months (95% CI 9.7-12.9 months). After amendment, most common grade 3-4 adverse events reported during induction treatment were neutropenia (48%; febrile neutropenia: 5%), diarrhoea (35%), asthenia (27%), stomatitis (14%), and skin toxic effect (14%). One treatment-related death was registered. Conclusions: Adding panitumumab to FOLFOXIRI is feasible decreasing the dose of fluorouracil and irinotecan to reduce the risk of diarrhoea. Activity and secondary resectability of metastases among Ras-BRAF wild-type patients are promising. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.

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