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Brahmer J.,Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins | Reckamp K.L.,City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center | Baas P.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Crino L.,University of Perugia | And 21 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND Patients with advanced squamous-cell non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have disease progression during or after first-line chemotherapy have limited treatment options. This randomized, open-label, international, phase 3 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of nivolumab, a fully human IgG4 programmed death 1 (PD-1) immune-checkpoint-inhibitor antibody, as compared with docetaxel in this patient population. METHODS We randomly assigned 272 patients to receive nivolumab, at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight every 2 weeks, or docetaxel, at a dose of 75 mg per square meter of body-surface area every 3 weeks. The primary end point was overall survival. RESULTS The median overall survival was 9.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.3 to 13.3) with nivolumab versus 6.0 months (95% CI, 5.1 to 7.3) with docetaxel. The risk of death was 41% lower with nivolumab than with docetaxel (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.79; P<0.001). At 1 year, the overall survival rate was 42% (95% CI, 34 to 50) with nivolumab versus 24% (95% CI, 17 to 31) with docetaxel. The response rate was 20% with nivolumab versus 9% with docetaxel (P = 0.008). The median progression-free survival was 3.5 months with nivolumab versus 2.8 months with docetaxel (hazard ratio for death or disease progression, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.81; P<0.001). The expression of the PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) was neither prognostic nor predictive of benefit. Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or 4 were reported in 7% of the patients in the nivolumab group as compared with 55% of those in the docetaxel group. CONCLUSIONS Among patients with advanced, previously treated squamous-cell NSCLC, overall survival, response rate, and progression-free survival were significantly better with nivolumab than with docetaxel, regardless of PD-L1 expression level. Copyright © 2015 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source


Hainsworth J.D.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute Tennessee Oncology PLLC | Reeves J.A.,Florida Cancer Specialists | Mace J.R.,Florida Cancer Specialists | Crane E.J.,Oncology Hematology Care | And 5 more authors.
Targeted Oncology | Year: 2016

Purpose: The chemokine (C-X-C Motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) and its ligand, stromal-cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1), are frequently overexpressed in a variety of solid tumors, and are believed to play important roles in the regulation of organ-specific metastasis, tumor growth, invasion, and survival. In this randomized Phase 2 trial, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of LY2510924 (LY), a peptide antagonist of CXCR4, combined with sunitinib (SUN) in the first-line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Patients and Methods: Eligible patients were randomized (2:1) to receive LY (20 mg SC daily) + SUN (50 mg PO daily for 4 weeks followed by 2 weeks off) or SUN alone. Response was assessed after two cycles; patients continued treatment until tumor progression or intolerable toxicity. The study was powered to detect a 47 % increase in median progression-free survival (PFS). Results: One hundred eight patients were randomized and treated (LY + SUN, 72; SUN, 36); median duration of treatment of five cycles. Observed median PFS was 8.1 months with LY + SUN and 12.3 months with SUN; Bayesian time-to-event HR 1.23; 95 % credible interval: 0.74, 1.96. LY was well tolerated; the toxicity profile was typical of SUN. No efficacy differences were seen between treatments groups when subsets with high versus low levels of CXCR4 tumor expression were compared. Conclusions: The addition of LY to SUN in the first-line treatment of metastatic RCC was well tolerated, but did not improve the PFS or overall survival (OS) vs. SUN alone. CXCR4 remains an unproven therapeutic target for the treatment of RCC. Clinical Trial.gov Identifier: NCT01391130 [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland Source


Yardley D.A.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute Tennessee Oncology | Weaver R.,TN | Melisko M.E.,University of California at San Francisco | Arena F.P.,New York University | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2015

Purpose: Glycoprotein NMB (gpNMB), a negative prognostic marker, is overexpressed in multiple tumor types. Glembatumumab vedotin is a gpNMB-specific monoclonal antibody conjugated to the potent cytotoxin monomethyl auristatin E. This phase II study investigated the activity of glembatumumab vedotin in advanced breast cancer by gpNMB expression. Patients and Methods: Patients (n = 124) with refractory breast cancer that expressed gpNMB in ≥ 5% of epithelial or stromal cells by central immunohistochemistry were stratified by gpNMB expression (tumor, low stromal intensity, high stromal intensity) and were randomly assigned 2:1 to glembatumumab vedotin (n = 83) or investigator's choice (IC) chemotherapy (n = 41). The study was powered to detect overall objective response rate (ORR) in the glembatumumab vedotin arm between 10% (null) and 22.5% (alternative hypothesis) with preplanned investigation of activity by gpNMB distribution and/or intensity (Stratum 1 to Stratum 3). Results: Glembatumumab vedotin was well tolerated as compared with IC chemotherapy (less hematologic toxicity; more rash, pruritus, neuropathy, and alopecia). ORR was 6% (five of 83) for glembatumumab vedotin versus 7% (three of 41) for IC, without significant intertreatment differences for predefined strata. Secondary end point revealed ORR of 12% (10 of 83) versus 12% (five of 41) overall, and 30% (seven of 23) versus 9% (one of 11) for gpNMB overexpression (≥ 25% of tumor cells). Unplanned analysis showed ORR of 18% (five of 28) versus 0% (0 of 11) in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and 40% (four of 10) versus 0% (zero of six) in gpNMB-overexpressing TNBC. Conclusion: Glembatumumab vedotin is well tolerated in heavily pretreated patients with breast cancer. Although the primary end point in advanced gpNMB-expressing breast cancer was not met for all enrolled patients (median tumor gpNMB expression, 5%), activity may be enhanced in patients with gpNMB-overexpressing tumors and/or TNBC. A pivotal phase II trial (METRIC [Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer]) is underway. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. Source


Loren A.W.,University of Pennsylvania | Mangu P.B.,American Society of Clinical Oncology | Beck L.N.,Livestrong | Brennan L.,Oncology Hematology Care | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2013

Purpose: To update guidance for health care providers about fertility preservation for adults and children with cancer. Methods: A systematic review of the literature published from March 2006 through January 2013 was completed using MEDLINE and the Cochrane Collaboration Library. An Update Panel reviewed the evidence and updated the recommendation language. Results: There were 222 new publications that met inclusion criteria. A majority were observational studies, cohort studies, and case series or reports, with few randomized clinical trials. After review of the new evidence, the Update Panel concluded that no major, substantive revisions to the 2006 American Society of Clinical Oncology recommendations were warranted, but clarifications were added. Recommendations: As part of education and informed consent before cancer therapy, health care providers (including medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, gynecologic oncologists, urologists, hematologists, pediatric oncologists, and surgeons) should address the possibility of infertility with patients treated during their reproductive years (or with parents or guardians of children) and be prepared to discuss fertility preservation options and/or to refer all potential patients to appropriate reproductive specialists. Although patients may be focused initially on their cancer diagnosis, the Update Panel encourages providers to advise patients regarding potential threats to fertility as early as possible in the treatment process so as to allow for the widest array of options for fertility preservation. The discussion should be documented. Sperm and embryo cryopreservation as well as oocyte cryopreservation are considered standard practice and are widely available. Other fertility preservation methods should be considered investigational and should be performed by providers with the necessary expertise. © 2013 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. Source


Berdeja J.G.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute | Berdeja J.G.,Tennessee Oncology PLLC | Hart L.L.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute | Mace J.R.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
Haematologica | Year: 2015

The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of the combination of panobinostat and carfilzomib in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. Patients with multiple myeloma who had relapsed after at least one prior treatment were eligible to participate. In the dose escalation part of the study a standard 3+3 design was used to determine the maximum tolerated dose of four planned dose levels of the combination of carfilzomib and panobinostat. Panobinostat was administered on days 1, 3, 5, 15, 17, and 19. Carfilzomib was administered on days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, and 16 of each 28-day cycle. Treatment was continued until progression or intolerable toxicity. Forty-four patients were accrued into the trial, 13 in the phase I part and 31 in the phase II part of the study. The median age of the patients was 66 years and the median number of prior therapies was five. The expansion dose was established as 30 mg panobinostat, 20/45 mg/m2 carfilzomib. The overall response rate was 67% for all patients, 67% for patients refractory to prior proteasome inhibitor treatment and 75% for patients refractory to prior immune modulating drug treatment. At a median follow up of 17 months, median progression-free survival was 7.7 months, median time to progression was 7.7 months, and median overall survival had not been reached. The regimen was well tolerated, although there were several panobinostat dose reductions. In conclusion, the combination of panobinostat and carfilzomib is feasible and effective in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. (Trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01496118). © 2015 Ferrata Storti Foundation. Source

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