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Snchez-Lara K.,Oncology Center Diana Laura Riojas Of Colosio | Sosa-Snchez R.,Oncology Center Diana Laura Riojas Of Colosio | Green-Renner D.,Oncology Center Diana Laura Riojas Of Colosio | Rodriguez C.,Oncology Center Diana Laura Riojas Of Colosio | And 3 more authors.
Nutrition Journal | Year: 2010

Objectives. To determine the relationship between energy and nutrient consumption with chemosensory changes in cancer patients under chemotherapy. Methods. We carried out a cross-sectional study, enrolling 60 subjects. Cases were defined as patients with cancer diagnosis after their second chemotherapy cycle (n = 30), and controls were subjects without cancer (n = 30). Subjective changes of taste during treatment were assessed. Food consumption habits were obtained with a food frequency questionnaire validated for Mexican population. Five different concentrations of three basic flavors - sweet (sucrose), bitter (urea), and a novel basic taste, umami (sodium glutamate) - were used to measure detection thresholds and recognition thresholds (RT). We determine differences between energy and nutrient consumption in cases and controls and their association with taste DT and RT. Results. No demographic differences were found between groups. Cases showed higher sweet DT (6.4 vs. 4.4 mol/ml; p = 0.03) and a higher bitter RT (100 vs. 95 mol/ml; p = 0.04) than controls. Cases with sweet DT above the median showed significant lower daily energy (2,043 vs.1,586 kcal; p = 0.02), proteins (81.4 vs. 54 g/day; p = 0.01), carbohydrates (246 vs.192 g/day; p = 0.05), and zinc consumption (19 vs.11 mg/day; p = 0.01) compared to cases without sweet DT alteration. Cases with sweet DT and RT above median were associated with lower completion of energy requirements and consequent weight loss. There was no association between flavors DT or RT and nutrient ingestion in the control group. Conclusion. Changes of sweet DT and bitter RT in cancer patients under chemotherapy treatment were associated with lower energy and nutrient ingestion. Taste detection and recognition thresholds disorders could be important factors in malnutrition development on patients with cancer under chemotherapy treatment. © 2010 Snchez-Lara et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Laviano A.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Krznaric Z.,University of Zagreb | Sanchez-Lara K.,Oncology Center Diana Laura Riojas Of Colosio | Preziosa I.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Peptides | Year: 2010

Protein energy wasting is frequently observed in patients with advanced chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease. Anorexia and reduced food intake are critical contributing factors and negatively impact on patients' survival. Ghrelin is a prophagic peptide produced by the stomach and acting at the hypothalamic level to increase the activity of orexigenic neurons. In patients with chronic renal disease, plasma levels are increased as a likely effect of reduced renal clearance. Nevertheless, patients' food intake is significantly reduced, suggesting inflammation-mediated resistance of hypothalamic nuclei to peripheral signals. A number of forms of evidence show that ghrelin resistance could be overcome by the administration of exogenous ghrelin. Therefore, ghrelin has been proposed as a potential strategy to improve food intake in chronic renal failure patients with protein energy wasting. Preliminary data are encouraging although larger prospective clinical trials are needed to confirm the results and to identify those patients who are likely to benefit most from the administration of exogenous ghrelin. © 2010 A. Laviano et al.

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