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Lehrnbecher T.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Schmidt S.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Koehl U.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Schuster F.R.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf | And 3 more authors.
Medical Mycology | Year: 2011

The morbidity and mortality rates of invasive fungal infection in allogeneic stem cell recipients are still unacceptably high and have not been significantly improved by alternative antifungal strategies to date. Over the last few years, rapid methods for the clinical-scale generation of functionally active and well characterized antifungal T H1 cells have become available. In addition, current data on the use of donor-derived virus-specific T cells in allogeneic stem cell transplantation suggest that the risk of severe adverse events, in particular the risk of graft-versus-host disease, is negligible. Therefore, adoptive antifungal immunotherapeutic strategies should be evaluated in clinical trials. However, one has to recognize that these trials are only meaningful with sufficiently large and homogenous cohorts of patients and if the settings of adoptive antifungal immunotherapy are comparable. Ultimately, the strategy of adoptively transferring antifungal immune responses might improve the outcome in hematopoietic stem cell recipients suffering from invasive fungal infection. © 2011 ISHAM. Source

Ochsenreither S.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Majeti R.,Stanford University | Schmitt T.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Stirewalt D.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | And 14 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2012

Targeted T-cell therapy is a potentially less toxic strategy than allogeneic stem cell transplantation for providing a cytotoxic antileukemic response to eliminate leukemic stem cells (LSCs) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, this strategy requires identification of leukemia-associated antigens that are immunogenic and exhibit selective high expression in AML LSCs. Using microarray expression analysis of LSCs, hematopoietic cell subpopulations, and peripheral tissues to screen for candidate antigens, cyclin-A1 was identified as a candidate gene. Cyclin-A1 promotes cell proliferation and survival, has been shown to be leukemogenic in mice, is detected in LSCs of more than 50% of AML patients, and is minimally expressed in normal tissues with exception of testis. Using dendritic cells pulsed with a cyclin-A1 peptide library, we generated T cells against several cyclin-A1 oligopeptides. Two HLA A&z.ast;0201-restricted epitopes were further characterized, and specific CD8 T-cell clones recognized both peptide-pulsed target cells and the HLA A&z.ast;0201-positive AML line THP-1, which expresses cyclin-A1. Furthermore, cyclin-A1-specific CD8 T cells lysed primary AML cells. Thus, cyclin-A1 is the first prototypic leukemia-testis-antigen to be expressed in AML LSCs. The pro-oncogenic activity, high expression levels, and multitude of immunogenic epitopes make it a viable target for pursuing T cell-based therapy approaches. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

Schmidt-Hieber M.,Oncology and Transfusion Medicine | Dabrowski R.,Oncology and Transfusion Medicine | Aicher B.,AEterna Zentaris | Lohneis P.,Institute for Pathology | And 5 more authors.
Investigational New Drugs | Year: 2012

The novel AKT inhibitor perifosine possesses myelopoiesis-stimulating effects in rodents. We studied the in vitro effects of the novel agents perifosine, bortezomib and lenalidomide in addition to adriamycin against normal human hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) using different clonogenic and non-clonogenic assays. All agents inhibited colony-forming unit (CFU) formation, perifosine inhibiting mainly CFUgranulocyte/ macrophage formation and the other agents burstforming unit-erythroid formation. Perifosine combined with lenalidomide or adriamycin tended to act antagonistically in suppressing CFU formation. Despite their inhibition of CFU formation, perifosine, bortezomib and lenalidomide induced only slight or moderate cytotoxicity in CD34+ selected HPC, as assessed using different assays such as flow cytometry-based detection of activated caspases and immunohistochemistry studies (e.g., Ki-67 staining). In contrast to its myelopoiesisstimulating effects in rodents, perifosine - like bortezomib and lenalidomide - suppresses the clonogenic potential of HPC from healthy donors in vitro and thus probably plays no role in preventing neutropenia or in shorting its duration after intensive chemotherapy. However, all these novel agents typically induce only slight or moderate suppression of the clonogenic potential or loss of viability of normal HPC at clinically achievable plasma concentrations, assuming that hematoxicity is manageable and functional HPC can be collected after treatment with these compounds. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011. Source

Schmidt-Hieber M.,Oncology and Transfusion Medicine | Blau I.W.,Oncology and Transfusion Medicine | Richter G.,Oncology and Transfusion Medicine | Turkmen S.,Institute for Medical Genetics | And 7 more authors.
Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics | Year: 2010

We analyzed karyotype stability in 22 patients with acute leukemia at relapse or disease progression after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Karyotypes before and at relapse after allo-SCT were different in 15 patients (68%), the most frequent type being clonal evolution either alone or combined with clonal devolution (13 patients). Patients with and without a karyotype change did not differ significantly in overall survival (OS) (median, 399 vs. 452 days; P = 0.889) and survival after relapse (median, 120 vs. 370 days; P = 0.923). However, acquisition of additional structural chromosome 1 abnormalities at relapse after allo-SCT occurred more frequently than expected and was associated with reduced OS (median, 125 vs. 478 days; P = 0.008) and shorter survival after relapse (median, 37 vs. 370 days; P = 0.002). We identified a previously undescribed clonal evolution involving t(15;17) without PML-RARA rearrangement in an AML patient. We conclude that a karyotype change is common at relapse after allo-SCT in acute leukemia patients. Moreover, our data suggest that additional structural chromosome 1 abnormalities are overrepresented at relapse after allo-SCT in these patients and, in contrast to a karyotype change per se, are associated with reduced OS and shorter survival after relapse. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

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