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Penack O.,Charite Campus Benjamin Franklin | Buchheidt D.,University of Mannheim | Christopeit M.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | von Lilienfeld-Toal M.,University of Bonn | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Oncology

Sepsis is a leading cause of mortality in neutropenic cancer patients. Early initiation of effective causative therapy as well as intensive adjunctive therapy is mandatory to improve outcome. We give recommendations for the management of adults with neutropenia and sepsis. The guidelines are written for clinicians involved in care of cancer patients and focus on pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of sepsis during neutropenia. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. Source

Maschmeyer G.,Oncology and Palliative Care | Carratala J.,University of Barcelona | Buchheidt D.,University of Mannheim | Hamprecht A.,University of Cologne | And 9 more authors.
Annals of Oncology

Up to 25% of patients with profound neutropenia lasting for > 10 days develop lung infiltrates, which frequently do not respond to broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy. While a causative pathogen remains undetected in the majority of cases, Aspergillus spp., Pneumocystis jirovecii, multi-resistant Gram-negative pathogens, mycobacteria or respiratory viruses may be involved. In at-risk patients who have received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) prophylaxis, filamentous fungal pathogens appear to be predominant, yet commonly not proven at the time of treatment initiation. Pathogens isolated from blood cultures, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or respiratory secretions are not always relevant for the etiology of pulmonary infiltrates and should therefore be interpreted critically. Laboratory tests for detecting Aspergillus galactomannan, β-D-glucan or DNA from blood, BAL or tissue samples may facilitate the diagnosis; however, most polymerase chain reaction assays are not yet standardized and validated. Apart from infectious agents, pulmonary side-effects from cytotoxic drugs, radiotherapy or pulmonary involvement by the underlying malignancy should be included into differential diagnosis and eventually be clarified by invasive diagnostic procedures. Pre-emptive treatment with mold-active systemic antifungal agents improves clinical outcome, while other microorganisms are preferably treated only when microbiologically documented. High-dose TMP/SMX is first choice for treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia, while cytomegalovirus pneumonia is treated primarily with ganciclovir or foscarnet in most patients. In a considerable number of patients, clinical outcome may be favorable despite respiratory failure, so that intensive care should be unrestrictedly provided in patients whose prognosis is not desperate due to other reasons. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. Source

Neumann S.,University of Gottingen | Krause S.W.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Maschmeyer G.,Oncology and Palliative Care | Schiel X.,Harlaching Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Hematology

Bacterial infections are the most common cause for treatment-related mortality in patients with neutropenia after chemotherapy. Here, we discuss the use of antibacterial prophylaxis against bacteria and Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in neutropenic cancer patients and offer guidance towards the choice of drug. A literature search was performed to screen all articles published between September 2000 and January 2012 on antibiotic prophylaxis in neutropenic cancer patients. The authors assembled original reports and meta-analysis from the literature and drew conclusions, which were discussed and approved in a consensus conference of the Infectious Disease Working Party of the German Society of Hematology and Oncology (AGIHO). Antibacterial prophylaxis has led to a reduction of febrile events and infections. A significant reduction of overall mortality could only be shown in a meta-analysis. Fluoroquinolones are preferred for antibacterial and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for PCP prophylaxis. Due to serious concerns about an increase of resistant pathogens, only patients at high risk of severe infections should be considered for antibiotic prophylaxis. Risk factors of individual patients and local resistance patterns must be taken into account. Risk factors, choice of drug for antibacterial and PCP prophylaxis and concerns regarding the use of prophylactic antibiotics are discussed in the review. © 2013 The Author(s). Source

Schildmann J.,Ruhr University Bochum | Ritter P.,Oncology and Palliative Care | Salloch S.,Ruhr University Bochum | Uhl W.,Ruhr University Bochum | Vollmann J.,Ruhr University Bochum
Annals of Oncology

Background: Information about diagnosis, treatment options and prognosis has been emphasized as a key to empower cancer patients to make treatment decisions reflecting their values. However, surveys indicate that patients' preferences regarding information and treatment decision-making differ. In this qualitative interview study, we explored pancreatic cancer patients' perceptions and preferences on information and treatment decision-making. Patients and methods: Qualitative in-depth interviews with patients with pancreatic cancer. Purposive sampling and qualitative analysis were carried out. Results: We identified two stages of information and treatment decision-making. Patients initially emphasize trust in their physician and indicate rather limited interest in details about surgical and medical treatment. In the latter stage of disease, patients perceive themselves more active regarding information seeking and treatment decision-making. All patients discuss their poor prognosis. Reflecting on their own situation, all patients interviewed pointed out that hope was an important driver to undergo further treatment also in advanced stages of the disease. Interviewees unanimously emphasized the difficulty of anticipating the time at which stopping cancer treatment would be the right decision. Conclusions: The findings can serve as starting point for reflection on professional decision-making in pancreatic cancer and larger representative surveys on ethical issues in treatment decision-making in pancreatic cancer. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. Source

Maschmeyer G.,Oncology and Palliative Care
Current Infectious Disease Reports

Pulmonary infiltrates develop in up to 25% of febrile neutropenic patients and are frequently refractory to broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy. Etiologically, Aspergillus spp., Pneumocystis jiroveci, multi-resistant Gram-negative rods as well as mycobacteria and respiratory viruses may be involved. Taking into account the predominant role of fungal pathogens, typically without microbiological proof, prompt addition of mold-active systemic antifungal therapy improves clinical outcome, while other microorganisms should typically be targeted based upon microbiological test results only. Microbial isolates from blood cultures, bronchoalveolar lavage or respiratory secretions must be critically interpreted with respect to their etiological relevance for pulmonary infiltrates. Non-culture based diagnostic procedures to detect circulating antigens such as galactomannan or 1,3-beta-D-glucan, or PCR techniques to amplify DNA from blood, bronchoalveolar lavage or tissue specimens, may facilitate the diagnosis. For pre-emptive antifungal treatment, voriconazole or liposomal amphotericin B are preferred. Antifungal treatment should be continued for at least 14 days before non-response and treatment modification are considered. Primary choice for treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia remains high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, while cytomegalovirus pneumonia is treated with ganciclovir in the majority of patients affected. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

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