OncoCare Cancer Center

Singapore, Singapore

OncoCare Cancer Center

Singapore, Singapore
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Lim H.Y.,Sungkyunkwan University | Heo J.,Pusan National University | Choi H.J.,Yonsei University | Lin C.-Y.,Chi Mei Medical Center | And 15 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2014

Purpose: There is an unmet need for treatment options in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sorafenib is currently the only approved systemic treatment for HCC. Refametinib, an oral, allosteric MEK inhibitor, has demonstrated antitumor activity in combination with sorafenib in vitro and in vivo. A phase II study evaluated efficacy and safety of refametinib plus sorafenib in Asian patients with HCC (NCT01204177). Experimental Design: Eligible patients received twice-daily refametinib 50 mg plus twice-daily sorafenib 200 mg (morning)/400 mg (evening), with dose escalation to sorafenib 400 mg twice daily from cycle 2 if no grade ≥2 hand-foot skin reaction, fatigue, or gastrointestinal toxicity occurred. Primary efficacy endpoint: disease control rate. Secondary endpoints: time to progression, overall survival, pharmacokinetic assessment, biomarker analysis, safety, and tolerability. Results: Of 95 enrolled patients, 70 received study treatment. Most patients had liver cirrhosis (82.9%) and hepatitis B viral infection (75.7%). Disease control rate was 44.8% (primary efficacy analysis; n = 58). Median time to progression was 122 days, median overall survival was 290 days (n = 70). Best clinical responders had RAS mutations; majority of poor responders had wild-type RAS. Most frequent drug-related adverse events were diarrhea, rash, aspartate aminotransferase elevation, vomiting, and nausea. Dose modifications due to adverse events were necessary in almost all patients. Conclusions: Refametinib plus sorafenib showed antitumor activity in patients with HCC and was tolerated at reduced doses by most patients. Frequent dose modifications due to grade 3 adverse events may have contributed to limited treatment effect. Patients with RAS mutations appear to benefit from refametinib/sorafenib combination. ©2014 AACR.


Ravaud A.,Hopital Saint Andre Bordeaux University Hospital | Barrios C.H.,Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul | Alekseev B.,Hertzen Cancer Research Institute | Tay M.-H.,OncoCare Cancer Center | And 10 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2015

Background: The open-label, phase II RECORD-2 trial compared efficacy and safety of first-line everolimus plus bevacizumab (EVE/BEV) with interferon plus bevacizumab (IFN/BEV) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Patients and methods: Previously untreated patients were randomized 1:1 to bevacizumab 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks with either everolimus 10 mg/day (EVE/BEV) or interferon (9 MIU 3 times/week, if tolerated) (IFN/BEV). Tumor assessments occurred every 12 weeks. The primary objective was the assessment of treatment effect on progression-free survival (PFS), based on an estimate of the chance of a subsequent phase III trial success (50% threshold for phase II success). Results: Baseline characteristics were balanced between the EVE/BEV (n = 182) and IFN/BEV (n = 183) arms. The median PFS was 9.3 and 10.0 months in the EVE/BEV and IFN/BEV arms, respectively (P = 0.485). The predicted probability of phase III success was 5.05% (hazard ratio = 0.91; 95% confidence interval 0.69-1.19). The median duration of exposure was 8.5 and 8.3 months for EVE/BEV and IFN/BEV, respectively. The percentage of patients discontinuing because of adverse events (AEs) was 23.4% for EVE/BEV and 26.9% for IFN/BEV. Common grade 3/4 AEs included proteinuria (24.4%), stomatitis (10.6%), and anemia (10.6%) for EVE/BEV and fatigue (17.1%), asthenia (14.4%), and proteinuria (10.5%) for IFN/BEV. The median overall survival was 27.1 months in both arms. Conclusions: The efficacy of EVE/BEV and IFN/BEV appears similar. No new or unexpected safety findings were identified and, with the exception of proteinuria in about one-fourth of the population, EVE/BEV was generally well tolerated. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


Sternberg C.N.,San Camillo and Forlanini Hospitals | Castellano D.,Hospital Universitario 12 Of Octubre | Daugaard G.,Rigshospitalet | Geczi L.,National Institute of Oncology | And 16 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: In the final analysis of the phase 3 COU-AA-301 study, abiraterone acetate plus prednisone significantly prolonged overall survival compared with prednisone alone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after chemotherapy. Here, we present the final analysis of an early-access protocol trial that was initiated after completion of COU-AA-301 to enable worldwide preapproval access to abiraterone acetate in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after chemotherapy. Methods: We did a multicentre, open-label, early-access protocol trial in 23 countries. We enrolled patients who had metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after taxane chemotherapy. Participants received oral doses of abiraterone acetate (1000 mg daily) and prednisone (5 mg twice a day) in 28-day cycles until disease progression, development of sustained side-effects, or abiraterone acetate becoming available in the respective country. The primary outcome was the number of adverse events arising during study treatment and within 30 days of discontinuation. Efficacy measures (time to prostate-specific antigen [PSA] progression and time to clinical progression) were gathered to guide treatment decisions. We included in our analysis all patients who received at least one dose of abiraterone acetate. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01217697. Findings: Between Nov 17, 2010, and Sept 30, 2013, 2314 patients were enrolled into the early-access protocol trial. Median follow-up was 5·7 months (IQR 3·5-10·6). 952 (41%) patients had a grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse event, and grade 3 or 4 serious adverse events were recorded in 585 (25%) people. The most common grade 3 and 4 adverse events were hepatotoxicity (188 [8%]), hypertension (99 [4%]), cardiac disorders (52 [2%]), osteoporosis (31 [1%]), hypokalaemia (28 [1%]), and fluid retention or oedema (23 [1%]). 172 (7%) patients discontinued the study because of adverse events (64 [3%] were drug-related), as assessed by the investigator, and 171 (7%) people died. The funder assessed causes of death, which were due to disease progression (85 [4%]), an unrelated adverse experience (72 [3%]), and unknown reasons (14 [1%]). Of the 86 deaths not attributable to disease progression, 18 (<1%) were caused by a drug-related adverse event, as assessed by the investigator. Median time to PSA progression was 8·5 months (95% CI 8·3-9·7) and median time to clinical progression was 12·7 months (11·8-13·8). Interpretation: No new safety signals or unexpected adverse events were found in this early-access protocol trial to assess abiraterone acetate for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who progressed after chemotherapy. Future work is needed to ascertain the most effective regimen of abiraterone acetate to optimise patients' outcomes. Funding: Janssen Research & Development. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Chay W.Y.,11 Hospital Drive | Ong W.S.,11 Hospital Drive | Tan P.H.,Singapore General Hospital | Jie Leo N.Q.,11 Hospital Drive | And 8 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Introduction: The Gail model (GM) is a risk-assessment model used in individual estimation of the absolute risk of invasive breast cancer, and has been applied to both clinical counselling and breast cancer prevention studies. Although the GM has been validated in several Western studies, its applicability outside North America and Europe remains uncertain. The Singapore Breast Cancer Screening Project (SBCSP) is a nation-wide prospective trial of screening mammography conducted between Oct 1994 and Feb 1997, and is the only such trial conducted outside North America and Europe to date. With the long-term outcomes from this study, we sought to evaluate the performance of GM in prediction of individual breast cancer risk in a Asian developed country.Methods: The study population consisted of 28,104 women aged 50 to 64 years who participated in the SBSCP and did not have breast cancer detected during screening. The national cancer registry was used to identify incident cases of breast cancer. To evaluate the performance of the GM, we compared the expected number of invasive breast cancer cases predicted by the model to the actual number of cases observed within 5-year and 10-year follow-up. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to test the goodness of fit between the expected and observed cases of invasive breast cancers.Results: The ratio of expected to observed number of invasive breast cancer cases within 5 years from screening was 2.51 (95% confidence interval 2.14 - 2.96). The GM over-estimated breast cancer risk across all age groups, with the discrepancy being highest among older women aged 60 - 64 years (E/O = 3.53, 95% CI = 2.57-4.85). The model also over-estimated risk for the upper 80% of women with highest predicted risk. The overall E/O ratio for the 10-year predicted breast cancer risk was 1.85 (1.68-2.04).Conclusions: The GM over-predicts the risk of invasive breast cancer in the setting of a developed Asian country as demonstrated in a large prospective trial, with the largest difference seen in older women aged between 60 and 64 years old. The reason for the discrepancy is likely to be multifactorial, including a truly lower prevalence of breast cancer, as well as lower mammographic screening prevalence locally. © 2011 Chay et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Yeo Z.X.,National Cancer Center Singapore | Chan M.,National Cancer Center Singapore | Yap Y.S.,National Cancer Center Singapore | Ang P.,National Cancer Center Singapore | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The emergence of benchtop sequencers has made clinical genetic testing using next-generation sequencing more feasible. Ion Torrent's PGMTM is one such benchtop sequencer that shows clinical promise in detecting single nucleotide variations (SNVs) and microindel variations (indels). However, the large number of false positive indels caused by the high frequency of homopolymer sequencing errors has impeded PGMTM's usage for clinical genetic testing. An extensive analysis of PGMTM data from the sequencing reads of the well-characterized genome of the Escherichia coli DH10B strain and sequences of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes from six germline samples was done. Three commonly used variant detection tools, SAMtools, Dindel, and GATK's Unified Genotyper, all had substantial false positive rates for indels. By incorporating filters on two major measures we could dramatically improve false positive rates without sacrificing sensitivity. The two measures were: B-Allele Frequency (BAF) and VARiation of the Width of gaps and inserts (VARW) per indel position. A BAF threshold applied to indels detected by UnifiedGenotyper removed ~99% of the indel errors detected in both the DH10B and BRCA sequences. The optimum BAF threshold for BRCA sequences was determined by requiring 100% detection sensitivity and minimum false discovery rate, using variants detected from Sanger sequencing as reference. This resulted in 15 indel errors remaining, of which 7 indel errors were removed by selecting a VARW threshold of zero. VARW specific errors increased in frequency with higher read depth in the BRCA datasets, suggesting that homopolymer-associated indel errors cannot be reduced by increasing the depth of coverage. Thus, using a VARW threshold is likely to be important in reducing indel errors from data with higher coverage. In conclusion, BAF and VARW thresholds provide simple and effective filtering criteria that can improve the specificity of indel detection in PGMTM data without compromising sensitivity. © 2012 Yeo et al.


PubMed | ICON Cancer Care, Hospital Universitario 12 Of Octubre, San Camillo and Forlanini Hospitals, Duke Cancer Institute and 11 more.
Type: Clinical Trial, Phase III | Journal: The Lancet. Oncology | Year: 2014

In the final analysis of the phase 3 COU-AA-301 study, abiraterone acetate plus prednisone significantly prolonged overall survival compared with prednisone alone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after chemotherapy. Here, we present the final analysis of an early-access protocol trial that was initiated after completion of COU-AA-301 to enable worldwide preapproval access to abiraterone acetate in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after chemotherapy.We did a multicentre, open-label, early-access protocol trial in 23 countries. We enrolled patients who had metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after taxane chemotherapy. Participants received oral doses of abiraterone acetate (1000 mg daily) and prednisone (5 mg twice a day) in 28-day cycles until disease progression, development of sustained side-effects, or abiraterone acetate becoming available in the respective country. The primary outcome was the number of adverse events arising during study treatment and within 30 days of discontinuation. Efficacy measures (time to prostate-specific antigen [PSA] progression and time to clinical progression) were gathered to guide treatment decisions. We included in our analysis all patients who received at least one dose of abiraterone acetate. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01217697.Between Nov 17, 2010, and Sept 30, 2013, 2314 patients were enrolled into the early-access protocol trial. Median follow-up was 57 months (IQR 35-106). 952 (41%) patients had a grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse event, and grade 3 or 4 serious adverse events were recorded in 585 (25%) people. The most common grade 3 and 4 adverse events were hepatotoxicity (188 [8%]), hypertension (99 [4%]), cardiac disorders (52 [2%]), osteoporosis (31 [1%]), hypokalaemia (28 [1%]), and fluid retention or oedema (23 [1%]). 172 (7%) patients discontinued the study because of adverse events (64 [3%] were drug-related), as assessed by the investigator, and 171 (7%) people died. The funder assessed causes of death, which were due to disease progression (85 [4%]), an unrelated adverse experience (72 [3%]), and unknown reasons (14 [1%]). Of the 86 deaths not attributable to disease progression, 18 (<1%) were caused by a drug-related adverse event, as assessed by the investigator. Median time to PSA progression was 85 months (95% CI 83-97) and median time to clinical progression was 127 months (118-138).No new safety signals or unexpected adverse events were found in this early-access protocol trial to assess abiraterone acetate for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who progressed after chemotherapy. Future work is needed to ascertain the most effective regimen of abiraterone acetate to optimise patients outcomes.Janssen Research & Development.


PubMed | Chang Gung University, Bayer AG, Chi Mei Medical Center, National Taiwan University Hospital and 11 more.
Type: Clinical Trial, Phase II | Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research | Year: 2014

There is an unmet need for treatment options in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sorafenib is currently the only approved systemic treatment for HCC. Refametinib, an oral, allosteric MEK inhibitor, has demonstrated antitumor activity in combination with sorafenib in vitro and in vivo. A phase II study evaluated efficacy and safety of refametinib plus sorafenib in Asian patients with HCC (NCT01204177).Eligible patients received twice-daily refametinib 50 mg plus twice-daily sorafenib 200 mg (morning)/400 mg (evening), with dose escalation to sorafenib 400 mg twice daily from cycle 2 if no grade 2 hand-foot skin reaction, fatigue, or gastrointestinal toxicity occurred. Primary efficacy endpoint: disease control rate. Secondary endpoints: time to progression, overall survival, pharmacokinetic assessment, biomarker analysis, safety, and tolerability.Of 95 enrolled patients, 70 received study treatment. Most patients had liver cirrhosis (82.9%) and hepatitis B viral infection (75.7%). Disease control rate was 44.8% (primary efficacy analysis; n = 58). Median time to progression was 122 days, median overall survival was 290 days (n = 70). Best clinical responders had RAS mutations; majority of poor responders had wild-type RAS. Most frequent drug-related adverse events were diarrhea, rash, aspartate aminotransferase elevation, vomiting, and nausea. Dose modifications due to adverse events were necessary in almost all patients.Refametinib plus sorafenib showed antitumor activity in patients with HCC and was tolerated at reduced doses by most patients. Frequent dose modifications due to grade 3 adverse events may have contributed to limited treatment effect. Patients with RAS mutations appear to benefit from refametinib/sorafenib combination.


PubMed | Novartis, Hacettepe University, Hopital Saint Andre Bordeaux University Hospital, National Taiwan University Hospital and 7 more.
Type: Clinical Trial, Phase II | Journal: Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology | Year: 2015

The open-label, phase II RECORD-2 trial compared efficacy and safety of first-line everolimus plus bevacizumab (EVE/BEV) with interferon plus bevacizumab (IFN/BEV) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.Previously untreated patients were randomized 1:1 to bevacizumab 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks with either everolimus 10 mg/day (EVE/BEV) or interferon (9 MIU 3 times/week, if tolerated) (IFN/BEV). Tumor assessments occurred every 12 weeks. The primary objective was the assessment of treatment effect on progression-free survival (PFS), based on an estimate of the chance of a subsequent phase III trial success (50% threshold for phase II success).Baseline characteristics were balanced between the EVE/BEV (n = 182) and IFN/BEV (n = 183) arms. The median PFS was 9.3 and 10.0 months in the EVE/BEV and IFN/BEV arms, respectively (P = 0.485). The predicted probability of phase III success was 5.05% (hazard ratio = 0.91; 95% confidence interval 0.69-1.19). The median duration of exposure was 8.5 and 8.3 months for EVE/BEV and IFN/BEV, respectively. The percentage of patients discontinuing because of adverse events (AEs) was 23.4% for EVE/BEV and 26.9% for IFN/BEV. Common grade 3/4 AEs included proteinuria (24.4%), stomatitis (10.6%), and anemia (10.6%) for EVE/BEV and fatigue (17.1%), asthenia (14.4%), and proteinuria (10.5%) for IFN/BEV. The median overall survival was 27.1 months in both arms.The efficacy of EVE/BEV and IFN/BEV appears similar. No new or unexpected safety findings were identified and, with the exception of proteinuria in about one-fourth of the population, EVE/BEV was generally well tolerated.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00719264.


PubMed | Robert Bosch GmbH, National Cancer Center, Clinical Pharmacology, 11 Hospital Drive and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical pharmacokinetics | Year: 2016

Tamoxifen (TAM) is an established endocrine treatment for all stages of oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Its complex metabolism leads to the formation of multiple active and inactive metabolites. One of the main detoxification and elimination pathways of tamoxifen and its active metabolites, 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) and endoxifen, is via glucuronidation catalysed by uridine 5-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). However, few studies have comprehensively examined the impact of variations in the genes encoding the major hepatic UGTs on the disposition of tamoxifen and its metabolites. In the present study, we systematically sequenced exons, exon/intron boundaries, and flanking regions of UGT1A4, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 in 240 healthy subjects of different Asian ethnicities (Chinese, Malays and Indians) to identify haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms. Subsequently, 202 Asian breast cancer patients receiving tamoxifen were genotyped for 50 selected variants in the three UGT genes to comprehensively investigate their associations with steady-state plasma levels of tamoxifen, its active metabolites and their conjugated counterparts. The UGT1A4 haplotype (containing variant 142T>G, L48V defining the *3 allele) was strongly associated with higher plasma levels of TAM-N-glucuronide, with a twofold higher metabolic ratio of TAM-N-glucuronide/TAM observed in carriers of this haplotype upon covariate adjustment (P<0.0001). Variants in UGT2B7 were not associated with altered O-glucuronidation of both 4-OHT and endoxifen, while UGT2B15 haplotypes had a modest effect on (E)-endoxifen plasma levels after adjustment for CYP2D6 genotypes. Our findings highlight the influence of UGT1A4 haplotypes on tamoxifen disposition in Asian breast cancer patients, while genetic variants in UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 appear to be of minor importance.


Chan M.,National Cancer Center | Chan M.,11 Hospital Drive | Ji S.M.,National Cancer Center | Ji S.M.,11 Hospital Drive | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Diagnostics | Year: 2012

In a clinical setting, next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches for the enrichment and resequencing of DNA targets may have limitations in throughput, cost, or accuracy. We evaluated an NGS workflow for targeted DNA sequencing for mutation detection. Targeted sequence data of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, generated using a PCR-based, multiplexed NGS approach using the SOLiD 4 (n = 24) and Ion Torrent PGM (n = 20) next-generation sequencers, were evaluated against sequence data obtained by Sanger sequencing. The overall sensitivity for SOLiD and PGM were 97.8% (95% CI = 94.7 to 100.0) and 98.9% (95% CI = 96.8 to 100.0) respectively. The specificity for the SOLiD platform was high, at 100.0% (95% CI = 99.3 to 100.0). PGM correctly identified all 3 indels, but 68 false-positive indels were also called. Equimolar normalization of amplicons was not necessary for successful NGS. Both platforms are highly amenable to scale-up, potentially reducing the reagent cost for BRCA testing to

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