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Sabel C.F.,Columbia University | Victor D.G.,University of California at San Diego | Victor D.G.,ON World
Climatic Change | Year: 2015

With the failure of integrated, top-down bargaining strategies, analysts and diplomats have now turned to bottom-up methods such as “building blocks” and “climate clubs” to coordinate national climate change policies and to avoid persistent diplomatic deadlock. We agree that decomposition of the grand problem of climate change into smaller units is a crucial first step towards effective cooperation. But we argue that given the great uncertainty of the feasibility and costs of potential solutions, this bottom-up approach will only work if it is supported by institutions that promote joint exploration of possibilities by public and private actors along with the scaling up of successes. As politics precludes creating many of these institutions under the consensus-oriented decision rules of the UN system, engaged outsiders—including especially clubs or building blocks that can learn in the face of uncertainty—working in parallel with the UN diplomatic process will have to provide them. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Craigie I.D.,James Cook University | Barnes M.D.,University of Queensland | Geldmann J.,Copenhagen University | Woodley S.,ON World
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

Globally, protected areas are the most commonly used tools to halt biodiversity loss. Yet, some are failing to adequately conserve the biodiversity they contain. There is an urgent need for knowledge on howto make themfunction more effectively. Impact evaluation methods provide a set of tools that could yield this knowledge. However, rigorous outcome-focused impact evaluation is not yet used as extensively as it could be in protected area management. We examine the role of international protected area funding agencies in facilitating the use of impact evaluation. These agencies are influential stakeholders as they allocate hundreds of millions of dollars annually to support protected areas, creating a unique opportunity to shape how the conservation funds are spent globally. We identify key barriers to the use of impact evaluation, detail how large funders are uniquely placed to overcome many of these, and highlight the potential benefits if impact evaluation is used more extensively. ©2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Kalimbira A.A.,University of Malawi | MacDonald C.,ON World | Simpson J.R.,University of Guelph
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2010

Objective: To assess the impact of an integrated community-based micronutrient and health (MICAH) programme on anaemia (Hb < 120 μg/l) among non-pregnant rural Malawian women aged 15-49 years from communities that participated in the 1996-2005 MICAH programme. Design: Prospective study of two large-scale cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2000 and 2004 as part of programme evaluation in MICAH and Comparison areas.Setting Rural areas across Malawi. The MICAH programme implemented a comprehensive package of interventions to reduce anaemia, based on a broad range on direct and indirect causes in Malawi. The project approaches included: Fe supplementation; dietary diversification and modification; food fortification; and strengthening primary health care.Participants Non-pregnant women of childbearing age (15-49 years old, n 5422), from randomly selected households that responded to a household questionnaire, had their Hb measured from finger-prick blood samples using the HemoCue®. Results: In 2000, there was no significant difference in Hb concentration between MICAH and Comparison areas (mean (se): 117.4 (0.4) v. 116.8 (0.5) μg/l, P > 0.05) and the corresponding prevalence of anaemia (53.5 % v. 52.9 %, P > 0.05). By 2004, Hb concentration had increased significantly in MICAH but not in Comparison areas (mean (se): 121.0 (0.4) v. 115.7 (0.6) μg/l, P < 0.001), and the prevalence of anaemia had declined significantly in MICAH areas (53.5 % to 44.1 %, χ2 = 28.2, P < 0.0001) but not in Comparison areas (52.8 % to 54.0 %, χ2 = 0.3, P = 0.6). Conclusions: The MICAH programme was an effective public health nutrition programme that was associated with significant reductions in the prevalence of anaemia among non-pregnant rural Malawian women. Copyright © 2010 The Authors.

Objective: Although there is still a lot of controversy surrounding the debates on religion and psychiatry, working toward consensus based on clinical experience and research seems to be far more fruitful. Discourse: The main idea in this contribution runs as follows. It is no longer appropriate to treat psychiatry and religion as enemies. It is argued here that they are in fact allies. This position is elucidated in the light of two statements. (1) The World Psychiatric Association, indeed representing world psychiatry, needs to change its position toward religion and psychiatry. It should do so by crossing narrow-minded scientific boundaries like reductionist and materialistic boundaries. (2) Science and religion should not be regarded as opposing adversaries against each other, but as allies against nonsense and superstition. Conclusion: Two recommendations are formulated. First, science-and-religion, and in our case psychiatry-and-religion, is not purely about description based on gathering evidence, systematic empirical testing and mathematical modeling. We need an approach of both descriptive and prescriptive aspects of our daily reality, not only how our world is, but also how it should be. Secondly, science-and-religion, in our case psychiatry-and-religion as allies should formulate sensible criteria and develop an appropriate attitude to discernment based on intellectual, moral and spiritual sincerity. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Laffoley D.,Global Marine and Polar Programme | Laffoley D.,ON World
Marine Policy | Year: 2014

This key note presentation opened the conference. It provides a context to deliberations and discussions, and it sets out a range of options to help make better progress in the effective management and protection of the ocean. These range from improving the quality of protection through to how technology and new approaches can be used to ignite a broader interest and engagement with ocean conservation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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