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Taunusstein, Germany

Escher M.,FOCUS GmbH | Winkler K.,Omicron Nanotechnology GmbH | Renault O.,CEA Grenoble | Barrett N.,French Atomic Energy Commission
Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena | Year: 2010

The design and applications of an instrument for imaging X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are reviewed. The instrument is based on a photoelectron microscope and a double hemispherical analyser whose symmetric configuration avoids the spherical aberration (α2-term) inherent for standard analysers. The analyser allows high transmission imaging without sacrificing the lateral and energy resolution of the instrument. The importance of high transmission, especially for highest resolution imaging XPS with monochromated laboratory X-ray sources, is outlined and the close interrelation of energy resolution, lateral resolution and analyser transmission is illustrated. Chemical imaging applications using a monochromatic laboratory Al Kα-source are shown, with a lateral resolution of 610 nm. Examples of measurements made using synchrotron and laboratory ultra-violet light show the broad field of applications from imaging of core level electrons with chemical shift identification, high resolution threshold photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM), work function imaging and band structure imaging. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Lord A.M.,University of Swansea | Maffeis T.G.,University of Swansea | Walton A.S.,University of Leeds | Kepaptsoglou D.M.,Daresbury Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Nanotechnology | Year: 2013

Knowing and controlling the resistivity of an individual nanowire (NW) is crucial for the production of new sensors and devices. For ZnO NWs this is poorly understood; a 108 variation in resistivity has previously been reported, making the production of reproducible devices almost impossible. Here, we provide accurate resistivity measurements of individual NWs, using a four-probe scanning tunnelling microscope (STM), revealing a dependence on the NW dimensions. To correctly interpret this behaviour, an atomic level transmission electron microscopy technique was employed to study the structural properties of the NWs in relation to three growth techniques: hydrothermal, catalytic and non-catalytic vapour phase. All NWs were found to be defect free and structurally equivalent; those grown with a metallic catalyst were free from Au contamination. The resistivity measurements showed a distinct increase with decreasing NW diameter, independent of growth technique. The increasing resistivity at small NW diameters was attributed to the dominance of surface states removing electrons from the bulk. However, a fundamental variance in resistivity (102) was observed and attributed to changes in occupied surface state density, an effect which is not seen with other NW materials such as Si. This is examined by a model to predict the effect of surface state occupancy on the measured resistivity and is confirmed with measurements after passivating the ZnO surface. Our results provide an understanding of the primary influence of the reactive nature of the surface and its dramatic effect on the electrical properties of ZnO NWs. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

Barrett N.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Conrad E.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Winkler K.,Omicron Nanotechnology GmbH | Kromker B.,Omicron Nanotechnology GmbH
Review of Scientific Instruments | Year: 2012

We demonstrate dark field imaging in photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) of heterogeneous few layer graphene (FLG) furnace grown on SiC(000-1). Energy-filtered, threshold PEEM is used to locate distinct zones of FLG graphene. In each region, selected by a field aperture, the k-space information is imaged using appropriate transfer optics. By selecting the photoelectron intensity at a given wave vector and using the inverse transfer optics, dark field PEEM gives a spatial distribution of the angular photoelectron emission. In the results presented here, the wave vector coordinates of the Dirac cones characteristic of commensurate rotations of FLG on SiC(000-1) are selected providing a map of the commensurate rotations across the surface. This special type of contrast is therefore a method to map the spatial distribution of the local band structure and offers a new laboratory tool for the characterisation of technically relevant, microscopically structured matter. © 2012 American Institute of Physics. Source

Barrett N.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Winkler K.,Omicron Nanotechnology GmbH | Kromker B.,Omicron Nanotechnology GmbH | Conrad E.H.,Georgia Institute of Technology
Ultramicroscopy | Year: 2013

We present real and reciprocal space photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) results on few layer graphene using laboratory based He I and II radiation. The combination of a focused high-intensity source and high transmission PEEM electron optics provides good signal to noise ratios for the different modes of acquisition. We demonstrate work function mapping and secondary electron analysis, related to the graphene layer thickness, band structure imaging from micron scale regions by wave vector resolved PEEM (k-PEEM) and local secondary electron spectroscopy, giving information on the valence and conduction band states and the dispersion relations of the bands. Dark field PEEM is done by selecting the Dirac cone corresponding to the specific rotation of each graphene layer and allows spatial mapping of the commensurate rotation angles. The use of He II radiation increases the volume of reciprocal space accessible to k-PEEM and improves signal to background. The preferential linear polarization of the light source is used to investigate aspects of the electronic chirality near the Dirac cone. Recent developments in sample manipulation and cooling are presented. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Lord A.M.,University of Swansea | Maffeis T.G.,University of Swansea | Kryvchenkova O.,University of Swansea | Cobley R.J.,University of Swansea | And 7 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2015

The ability to control the properties of electrical contacts to nanostructures is essential to realize operational nanodevices. Here, we show that the electrical behavior of the nanocontacts between free-standing ZnO nanowires and the catalytic Au particle used for their growth can switch from Schottky to Ohmic depending on the size of the Au particles in relation to the cross-sectional width of the ZnO nanowires. We observe a distinct Schottky to Ohmic transition in transport behavior at an Au to nanowire diameter ratio of 0.6. The current-voltage electrical measurements performed with a multiprobe instrument are explained using 3-D self-consistent electrostatic and transport simulations revealing that tunneling at the contact edge is the dominant carrier transport mechanism for these nanoscale contacts. The results are applicable to other nanowire materials such as Si, GaAs, and InAs when the effects of surface charge and contact size are considered. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

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