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Gillies P.J.,Rutgers University | Harris W.S.,OmegaQuant LLC | Kris-Etherton P.M.,Pennsylvania State University
Current Atherosclerosis Reports | Year: 2011

Omega-3 fatty acid research, which began as an epidemiologic curiosity, has generated perhaps the strongest dataset for any nutrient in regard to cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Although once a relatively descriptive field, advances in analytic techniques have opened up the biochemistry of omega-3 fatty acids and nutritional genomics in plants and man and have taken the field into the "omic" era. Despite this progress, fundamental questions remain unanswered, such as which fatty acid or metabolite thereof drives a given health benefit, how much of a given fatty acid should we consume, and how do we best source the requisite fatty acids? Of these questions, the ability to source omega-3 fatty acids in order to meet dietary guidelines has become a practical concern. The advent of novel oils from plants and single cell organisms as enabled by biotechnology may provide a solution to this problem and in the process open up new uses for omega-3 fatty acids in dietary supplements and drugs. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Hussey E.K.,Glaxosmithkline | Portelli S.,Glaxosmithkline | Fossler M.J.,Glaxosmithkline | Gao F.,Glaxosmithkline | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development | Year: 2012

LOVAZA (omega-3-acid ethyl esters; eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]/docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]), with diet, lowers very high triglycerides (≥500 mg/dL) in adults. This study evaluated whether an emulsion formulation (LEM) increases the bioavailability of EPA/DHA compared to the reference formulation (RF) in healthy volunteers. Following relative bioavailability assessment, LEM, RF, and placebo were dosed for 2 weeks. Exposure measurements included plasma-free and total fatty acid (EPA/DHA) concentrations and phospholipid and red blood cell (RBC) incorporation. Following single doses, the dose-normalized EPA plasma-corrected AUCs were 14-fold (total) and 12-fold (free) higher and DHA plasma-corrected AUCs were 10-fold (total) and 13-fold (free) higher for LEM compared to RF. EPA and DHA incorporation into phospholipids increased for all active treatments; the increase was dose dependent for EPA. An 8-fold increase over baseline was observed in EPA incorporation for LEM (4-capsule dose) compared to a 4-fold increase for RF 4 g. DHA incorporation increased to a lesser degree, and RBC incorporation also increased. Pharmacodynamic evaluations revealed slight decreases (-8% to -25%) in the mean fasting triglyceride concentrations in all groups, including placebo, compared to baseline. Following a high-fat meal, no consistent treatment-related effect on the triglyceride profiles was observed. Study treatments were safe and tolerated. In conclusion, LEM improves the oral bioavailability of EPA and DHA. © SAGE Publications 2012. Source

Harris W.S.,University of South Dakota | Harris W.S.,OmegaQuant LLC | Harris W.S.,Health Diagnostic Laboratory
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids have been reported to have a variety of cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric benefits. Although obtaining the preformed fatty acids EPA and DHA from their traditional source (fish) is optimal, such an approach may not be realistic formeeting the world's growing demand for (n-3) fatty acids; therefore, amore sustainable and dependable source is needed. Stearidonic acid (SDA) is a metabolic precursor of EPA that can be provided by SDA-enhanced soybean oil. Such a product can provide a sustainable source of (n-3) fatty acids that does not endanger fish stocks. Two clinical trials have demonstrated that SDA-enhanced soybean oil can significantly improve an emerging marker of cardiovascular health, the omega-3 index (RBC EPA+DHA). The increase in the Index seen in these trials was used to estimate the potential clinical benefit of SDA consumption based on prior prospective cohort studies. In this analysis, risk for sudden cardiac death and the rate of cellular agingwould both theoretically be reduced. The lower risk for major cardiac events seen in the Japan EPA Lipid Intervention Study (which used EPA supplementation) suggests that raising EPA tissue levels, independent of changes in DHA, can have clinical benefit. Thus, the consumption of foods containing SDA-enhanced soybean oil may be both a practical and sustainable approach to enriching tissues with beneficial (n-3) fatty acids. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Pottala J.V.,OmegaQuant LLC | Talley J.A.,Crittenton Childrens Center | Churchill S.W.,Crittenton Childrens Center | Lynch D.A.,Childrens Mercy Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids | Year: 2012

Introduction: Epidemiological studies suggest that reduced intakes and/or blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with increased risk for depression in adults, but data on adolescents are scarce. The objective of this study was to determine whether red blood cell (RBC) levels of EPA+DHA (the omega-3 index) and/or the overall RBC fatty acid profile differ between depressed adolescents (cases) and non-depressed adolescents (controls). Patients and Methods: We measured the RBC fatty acid composition of cases admitted to the hospital for depression (n=150) and compared it to that of controls (n=161). Results: Cases and controls had similar ages, gender proportions, and body mass index (BMI) distributions, but there was a significant difference in racial/ethnic composition due to differences in recruitment sites. The unadjusted odds ratio for case status was 0.72 (95% CI; 0.55-0.95) for a 1% absolute increase in the omega-3 index. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine which fatty acids were useful in classifying cases and controls; BMI, age, gender, and race/ethnicity were forced into the model. Seven fatty acids were selected (DHA, myristic, stearic, oleic, trans linoleic, trans palmitoleic, and alpha-linolenic acids) to optimize the model fit to the data. In the adjusted model, the odds ratio was 0.67 (95% CI; 0.49-0.93) for a 1 SD increase in DHA. Adding the seven fatty acid profile to the basic model increased the area under the ROC curve by 12.6% (7.5%-17.6%). Discussion and Conclusion: These findings support the hypothesis that adolescent depression is associated with a perturbed RBC fatty acid pattern which includes a reduced omega-3 index. Intervention studies with EPA and DHA should be conducted in this vulnerable population for which few, safe therapeutic options currently exist. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Pottala J.V.,OmegaQuant LLC | Polreis J.,OmegaQuant LLC | Robinson J.,University of Iowa | Harris W.S.,OmegaQuant LLC | And 3 more authors.
Lipids | Year: 2012

Red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid (FA) patterns have been shown to predict risk for cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. As part of a project analyzing RBC samples from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) we observed implausibly low levels of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) suggestive of degradation. This was hypothesized to be due to short term storage (<1 month) at -20 °C during sample aliquoting. The purpose of this study was to measure the extent of degradation that occurs under these conditions, and then to use regression calibration equations with multiple imputations to correct the biases. Samples from the Women's Health Initiative that had always been stored at -80 °C were obtained and subjected to similar conditions as the WHIMS samples. General linear mixed models were used to develop bias-corrected calibration equations for each fatty acid. Sample degradation occurred at -20 °C with the average HUFA loss of 3.5 to 5.9 % per week depending on aliquot size (250 and 80 μL, respectively). Using the ratio of HUFA to saturated fatty acids (HUFA/SAT) as a marker of degradation, this bias-correction method raised the HUFA/SAT from 0.70 to 0.81, which was similar to that (0.78) seen in another large study with optimal processing. In summary, RBC samples should always be stored at -80 °C. The FA compositions of the degraded RBC samples from WHIMS were rehabilitated by application of regression calibration equations and multiple imputations, and these imputed datasets should be used in all future WHIMS studies. © AOCS 2012. Source

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