OmegaQuant Analytics LLC

Sioux Falls, SD, United States

OmegaQuant Analytics LLC

Sioux Falls, SD, United States

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Baack M.L.,Sanford Childrens Hospital | Baack M.L.,Sanford Health Research Center | Puumala S.E.,Sanford Health Research Center | Messier S.E.,Sanford Childrens Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids | Year: 2015

Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) are increasingly transferred from mother to fetus late in pregnancy. Infants born before this transfer is complete are at risk for deficiency. This study determines the relationship between gestational age (GA) and circulating LCPUFA levels to better understand the unique needs of premature infants born at various GAs. Whole blood was collected within the first 7 days of life from 60 preterm (≤34 weeks GA) and 30 term infants (≥38 weeks GA) and FA levels were analyzed. Since concurrent intravenous lipid emulsion can skew composition data, blood LCPUFA concentrations were also measured. Levels were compared among groups, and linear regression models were used to examine the association between FA composition and GA. Preterm infants had significantly lower DHA and ARA levels than term peers, and whether assessed as concentrations or compositions, both directly correlated with GA (p<0.0001). Moreover, FA comparisons suggest that premature infants have impaired synthesis of LCPUFAs from precursors and may require preformed DHA and ARA. This study confirms that essential FA status is strongly related to GA, and that those babies born the earliest are at the greatest risk of LCPUFA deficiency. © 2015 The Authors.


PubMed | University of South Dakota, OmegaQuant Analytics LLC and University of Malawi
Type: | Journal: International breastfeeding journal | Year: 2016

The effect of breast milk fatty acid (FA) composition, particularly levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on infant health outcomes is unclear. Part of the reason for this is difficulties in collecting, storing and shipping milk samples to the laboratory. Here we report the validation of a dried milk spot (DMS) system to measure FA composition to help overcome these obstacles. Milk FA were measured by gas chromatography and reported as percent of total FA; the FA of primary interest in this study were DHA and industrially produced trans FA (iTFA). Experiments were carried out using pooled milk samples from US (n=5) and Malawian women (n=50). Experiments compared liquid vs. DMS samples (n=55), assessed stability of FA composition under different storage conditions (n=5), and compared the results from two different labs using the same methods (n=5).Both % DHA and % iTFA levels in liquid and DMS samples were strongly correlated (R(2)=0.99 and 0.99, respectively, P<0.0001). The % DHA in DMS samples was stable for up to four weeks at room temperature and up to three years at -80C; only slight deviations from the acceptable range of variability (15%) occurred in the 4C and -20C conditions for % DHA. The % iTFA was stable under all conditions. All % DHA and % iTFA were within 15% of the referent when analyzed in two laboratories.Valid FA composition values can be obtained from DMS samples using this robust collection and transport system which should facilitate studies of the role of milk FA composition in infant development.


Rudolph M.C.,University of Colorado at Denver | Young B.E.,Aurora University | Jackson K.H.,OmegaQuant Analytics LLC | Jackson K.H.,University of South Dakota | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia | Year: 2016

Accurate assessment of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) content of human milk (HM) provides a powerful means to evaluate the FA nutrient status of breastfed infants. The conventional standard for FA composition analysis of HM is liquid extraction, trans-methylation, and analyte detection resolved by gas chromatography. This standard approach requires fresh or frozen samples, storage in deep freeze, organic solvents, and specialized equipment in processing and analysis. Further, HM collection is often impractical for many studies in the free living environment, particularly for studies in developing countries. In the present study, we compare a novel and more practical approach to sample collection and processing that involves the spotting and drying ~50 μL of HM on a specialized paper stored and transported at ambient temperatures until analysis. Deming regression indicated the two methods aligned very well for all LC-PUFA and the abundant HM FA. Additionally, strong correlations (r > 0.85) were observed for DHA, ARA, EPA, linoleic (LA), and alpha-linolenic acids (ALA), which are of particular interest to the health of the developing infant. Taken together, our data suggest this more practical and inexpensive method of collection, storage, and transport of HM milk samples could dramatically facilitate studies of HM, as well as understanding its lipid composition influences on human health and development. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York


PubMed | OmegaQuant Analytics LLC, University of Colorado at Denver and Aurora University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of mammary gland biology and neoplasia | Year: 2016

Accurate assessment of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) content of human milk (HM) provides a powerful means to evaluate the FA nutrient status of breastfed infants. The conventional standard for FA composition analysis of HM is liquid extraction, trans-methylation, and analyte detection resolved by gas chromatography. This standard approach requires fresh or frozen samples, storage in deep freeze, organic solvents, and specialized equipment in processing and analysis. Further, HM collection is often impractical for many studies in the free living environment, particularly for studies in developing countries. In the present study, we compare a novel and more practical approach to sample collection and processing that involves the spotting and drying ~50L of HM on a specialized paper stored and transported at ambient temperatures until analysis. Deming regression indicated the two methods aligned very well for all LC-PUFA and the abundant HM FA. Additionally, strong correlations (r>0.85) were observed for DHA, ARA, EPA, linoleic (LA), and alpha-linolenic acids (ALA), which are of particular interest to the health of the developing infant. Taken together, our data suggest this more practical and inexpensive method of collection, storage, and transport of HM milk samples could dramatically facilitate studies of HM, as well as understanding its lipid composition influences on human health and development.


Wachira J.K.,University of South Dakota | Larson M.K.,Augustana College at Sioux Falls | Harris W.S.,University of South Dakota | Harris W.S.,Health Diagnostic Laboratory | Harris W.S.,OmegaQuant Analytics LLC
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

n-3 Fatty acids (EPA and DHA, from fish oil) are essential fatty acids that are approved for the treatment of severe hypertriacylglycerolaemia and, in some countries, used for reducing the risk of CVD. Because of their inhibitory effects on platelet function, some practitioners have, perhaps unnecessarily, discontinued their use in patients undergoing invasive procedures or being treated with anti-platelet or anticoagulation drugs. Thus, the aim of the present study was to review the effects of n-3 fatty acids on bleeding complications in a wide variety of clinical settings, and to summarise their biochemical mechanism of action in platelet function and coagulation. We surveyed recent publications that either directly studied the effects of n-3 fatty acids on the risk of bleeding or focused on different end-points and also reported the effects on bleeding. n-3 Fatty acid treatment had no effect on the risk of clinically significant bleeding in either monotherapy or combination therapy settings. Although originally believed to operate primarily via the cyclo-oxygenase system, these fatty acids have been shown to affect multiple signalling pathways and thrombotic processes beyond simply affecting platelet aggregation. The present overview found no support for discontinuing the use of n-3 fatty acid treatment before invasive procedures or when given in combination with other agents that affect bleeding. On the contrary, the use of these fatty acids in several settings improved clinical outcomes. Copyright © The Authors 2014.


Harris W.S.,Health Diagnostic Laboratory | Harris W.S.,OmegaQuant Analytics LLC | Harris W.S.,University of South Dakota
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

The long chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), although originally synthesized by microorganisms in the oceans, are primarily obtained from the consumption of fish. Vegetarians, by definition, do not eat fish and thus consume virtually no EPA and DHA. Because conversion of the plant-derived n-3 fatty acid a-linolenic acid (ALA) to EPA and DHA is very low, n-3 tissue concentrations in vegetarians are lower than in omnivores. This review asks 2 questions: what is the evidence that increased n-3 concentrations reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in vegetarians, and, if it does, how can vegetarians increase their blood and tissue concentrations of these animalderived fatty acids? At present, both cardiovascular risk markers and cardiovascular events appear to be significantly reduced in vegetarians compared with those in omnivores. If so, and in the absence of data to show that risk in vegetarians could be even lower with higher n-3 concentrations, then the second question becomes moot. However, the absence of evidence is not evidence of absence; therefore, at our present state of knowledge, increasing n-3 concentrations is not an unreasonable goal for vegetarians. This can be accomplished by a variety of approaches, including increased intakes of ALA, consumption of stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil (if and when it comes to the market), and the use of supplements containing EPA, DHA, or both derived from nonanimal sources (microalgae, biotech yeast, and, in the future, biotech plant oils). © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.


Harris W.S.,University of South Dakota | Harris W.S.,Health Diagnostic Laboratory | Harris W.S.,OmegaQuant Analytics LLC
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care | Year: 2013

Purpose of Review: Several recent randomized trials and subsequent meta-analyses have questioned the value of n-3 fatty acid supplementation in cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Recent Findings: This report focuses on four clinical trials published between 2010 and 2012 that have failed to show benefits of n-3 fatty acids, and on one meta-analysis from 2012 that used a controversial statistical approach in reaching a conclusion of no effect. Summary: The question of the extent to which n-3 fatty acid supplementation reduces risk for cardiovascular disease remains open. Future studies must be properly powered, use doses of n-3 fatty acids significantly higher than those provided in background diets, focus on patient populations with low n-3 fatty acid tissue levels, treat for longer periods of time, and consider the effects of these agents in the great majority of patients who are not on guideline-directed therapeutic regimens. The strong evidence-base from prospective cohort studies and the ever-deepening understanding of the cellular effects of long-chain n-3 fatty acids together support the need for these nutrients in reducing cardiovascular risk. Short-term findings from randomized controlled trials need to be interpreted in the light of all the evidence. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Harris W.S.,Health Diagnostic Laboratory | Harris W.S.,OmegaQuant Analytics LLC | Harris W.S.,University of South Dakota | Varvel S.A.,Health Diagnostic Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Lipidology | Year: 2013

Background: Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) biostatus can be estimated with red blood cell (RBC) membranes or plasma. The matrix that exhibits the lower within-person variability and is less affected by an acute dose of n-3 FA is preferred in clinical practice. Objective: We compared the acute effects of a large dose of n-3 FA on RBC and plasma levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Methods: Healthy volunteers (n = 20) were given 4 capsules containing 3.6 g of n-3 FA with a standardized breakfast. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours. The EPA + DHA content of RBC membranes and plasma (the latter expressed as a percentage of total FA and as a concentration) were determined. General linear mixed models were used to analyze the mean response profiles in FA changes over time for plasma and RBCs. Results: At 6 hours after load, the plasma concentration of EPA + DHA had increased by 47% (95% confidence interval [CI], 24% to 73%) and the plasma EPA + DHA percentage of total FA by 19% (95% CI, 4.7% to 36%). The RBC EPA + DHA percentage of composition was unchanged [-0.6% (95% CI, -2.6% to 1.5%)]. At 24 hours, the change in both of the plasma EPA + DHA markers was 10-fold greater than that in RBCs. Conclusions: An acute dose of n-3 FA (eg, a meal of oily fish or fish oil supplements) taken within a day before a doctor's visit can elevate levels of EPA + DHA in plasma, whether expressed as a percentage or a concentration, but not in RBC membranes. Similar to hemoglobin A1c, which is not affected by an acute glycemic deviation, RBCs provide a more reliable estimate of a patient's chronic EPA + DHA status than does plasma. © 2013 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.


Alexander D.D.,EpidStat Institute | Bassett J.K.,Cancer Epidemiology Center | Weed D.L.,DLW Consulting LLC | Barrett E.C.,Exponent, Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Nutrition and Cancer | Year: 2015

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the potential association between LCω-3PUFAs and prostate cancer (PC). A comprehensive literature search was performed through 2013 to identify prospective studies that examined dietary intakes of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCω-3PUFA) or blood biomarkers of LCω-3PUFA status and risk of PC. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to generate summary relative risk estimates (SRREs) for LCω-3PUFAs and total PC, and by stage and grade. Subgroup analyses were also conducted for specific fatty acids and other study characteristics. Twelve self-reported dietary intake and 9 biomarker studies from independent study populations were included in the analysis, with 446,243 and 14,897 total participants, respectively. No association between LCω-3PUFAs and total PC was observed (SRRE = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.93-1.09) for the dietary intake studies (high vs. low LCω-3PUFAs category comparison) or for the biomarker studies (SRRE of 1.07, 95% CI: 0.94-1.20). In general, most summary associations for the dietary intake studies were in the inverse direction, whereas the majority of summary associations for the biomarker studies were in the positive direction, but all were weak in magnitude. The results from this meta-analysis do not support an association between LCω-3PUFAs and PC. © 2015 © Dominik D. Alexander, Julie K. Bassett, Douglas L. Weed, Erin Cernkovich Barrett, Heather Watson, William Harris.


The role of the long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in lipid metabolism and inflammation has been extensively studied; however, little is known about the relationship between docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3) and inflammation and triglycerides (TG). We evaluated whether n-3 DPA content of red blood cells (RBC) was associated with markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-), and C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting TG prior to n-3 supplementation in two studies (Study 1: n = 115, aged 20-44 years, body mass index (BMI) 20-30 kg/m2, TG = 34-176 mg/dL; Study 2: n = 28, aged 22-65 years, BMI 24-37 kg/m2, TG = 141-339 mg/dL). We also characterized the dose-response effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on RBC n-3 DPA after five months of supplementation with fish oil (Study 1: 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1800 mg/day EPA + DHA) and eight weeks of prescription n-3 ethyl esters (Study 2: 0, 850, and 3400 mg/day EPA + DHA). In Study 1, RBC n-3 DPA was inversely correlated with CRP (R2 = 36%, p < 0.001) and with fasting TG (r = -0.30, p = 0.001). The latter finding was replicated in Study 2 (r = -0.33, p = 0.04). In both studies, n-3 supplementation significantly increased RBC n-3 DPA dose-dependently. Relative increases were greater for Study 1, with increases of 29%-61% vs. 14%-26% for Study 2. The associations between RBC n-3 DPA, CRP, and fasting TG may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis and chronic inflammatory diseases and warrant further study.

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