Berg B.,Complesso Universitario |
Berg B.,University of Helsinki |
Davey M.P.,University of Cambridge |
de Marco A.,Complesso Universitario |
And 10 more authors.
Biogeochemistry | Year: 2010
We synthesized available data for decomposition of pine (Pinus) needle litter in pine forests to determine the litter chemical characteristics and climate factors that explained variation in the limit value, i. e. the level of accumulated mass loss at which the decomposition process either continues at a very low rate or possibly stops. Our data base included 56 separate studies on decomposition of pine needle litter, spanning Scots pine, lodgepole pine, Aleppo pine, stone pine and white pine, mainly incubated at the site of collection. Studies had 5 to 19 samplings, on average 10, and the decomposition was followed to a mass loss ranging from 47 to 83%, on average 67%. The periods from 3.0 to 5.4 years, on average 3.9 years, were of sufficient duration to allow estimates of limit values of decomposition. We used a linear mixed model with regression effects to relate limit values to potential explanatory variables, namely the sites' long-term mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP) and to substrate-chemistry factors. Regarding the latter, we explored two models; one that included initial concentrations of water solubles, lignin, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and Mn and one that included only lignin, N, Ca, and Mn to focus on those nutrients known to influence lignin degradation. Using backward elimination significant explanatory variables were determined. For litter decomposed in its site of origin we found the limit value to depend mainly on the initial concentration of Mn, with higher Mn concentrations resulting in higher accumulated mass loss. Thus, litter with higher Mn reached a higher limit value and left a smaller stable fraction. This is likely due to the fact that Mn is an essential component of ligninolytic enzymes important for degrading litter in the later stages of decomposition. Manganese has received little attention in decomposition studies to date. Given its significance in this synthesis, the role of Mn in influencing variation in the late stages of decomposition among ecosystems and among litters of other genera besides Pinus deserves further attention. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Berg B.,University of Helsinki |
Erhagen B.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences |
Johansson M.-B.,University of Gävle |
Vesterdal L.,Copenhagen University |
And 3 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2013
The aim of the present synthesis paper was to determine whether concentration changes and net release of manganese (Mn), as related to accumulated litter mass loss, are related to initial Mn concentration, mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP), and tree genus or species. We also examined whether limit values for decomposition are related to initial litter Mn concentration, MAT, and MAP. We compiled 84 foliar litter decomposition studies, conducted mainly in boreal and temperate forest ecosystems, for which Mn dynamics had been well documented. Manganese concentration and amount were related to accumulated litter mass loss at each sampling time for each single study, as well as for (i) all studies combined (n = 748) and (ii) for species groups viz. Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) (n = 284), pine (Pinus) species (n = 330), and deciduous species (n = 214). The changes in Mn concentration with accumulated mass loss followed quadratic functions showing significantly higher Mn concentrations for Norway spruce vs. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) (p < 0.0001) and vs. deciduous species (p < 0.01), as well as significantly higher for deciduous species vs. Scots pine (p < 0.0001). Manganese release rates were different among the three species groups (p < 0.001). Still, rates were related to initial Mn concentrations (p < 0.001) for all litter types combined and for the three species groups. Norway spruce released Mn more slowly than pine and deciduous species. Rates were related to climatic factors for litter of Norway spruce and deciduous species. Limit values for all litter and for pine species separately were related to Mn (p < 0.001) and MAT (p < 0.001). For Norway spruce, limit values were related to MAT (p < 0.001) and MAP (p < 0.01). It appears that Norway spruce litter retains Mn more strongly in the litter structure, producing humus richer in Mn than does litter of pine and deciduous species.
Benkhayal F.A.,Sudan University of Science and Technology |
Al-Gazwi S.M.,Omar khtar University |
Ramesh S.,Omar khtar University |
Kumar S.,University of Tripoli
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy | Year: 2010
Administration of thyme oil @ 0.1 mL kg-1 body weight orally once daily for 28 days to diabetic rats revealed progressively declined values of serum glucose from 483.30±1.35 mg% on day 0-113.20±1.00 mg% at the end of the trial. Serum total cholesterol levels revealed progressively inclining values till 21 days and thereafter declining to 107.40±1.20 mg% at the end of the trial. However, serum HDL, triglycerides, serum urea nitrogen and creatinine levels remained within normal limits as recorded in glibenclamide treated diabetic rats except a mild increase in ALT and AST levels was recorded on day 7. The histological findings revealed regenerative changes in the pancreas, liver and kidney. The present results demonstrated the antihyperglycemic and antilipidemic effects of thyme oil.
Activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Nrf-2-dependent genes by ischaemic pre-conditioning and post-conditioning: New adaptive endogenous protective responses against renal ischaemia/reperfusion injury
Shokeir A.A.,Mansoura University |
Hussein A.M.,Mansoura University |
Barakat N.,Mansoura University |
Abdelaziz A.,Mansoura University |
And 2 more authors.
Acta Physiologica | Year: 2014
Aim: To investigate the impact of ischaemic pre-conditioning (Ipre) and post-conditioning (Ipost) on expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene and its dependent genes, haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1); inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL1β and ICAM-1; and apoptotic markers such as caspase-3 in renal ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods: One hundred and fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were classified into five groups (each consisted of 30 rats): sham, control (I/R), Ipre + I/R, Ipre without I/R and Ipost + I/R. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured at 2, 24 and 48 h after ischaemia. In kidney tissues, mRNA of Nrf2, HO-1, NQO-1, TNF-α, IL-1β and ICAM-1 and immunohistochemical expression of Nrf2 and caspase-3 were assessed. Results: Serum creatinine and BUN improved significantly in Pre + I/R group; however, they did not show any significant improvement in Post + I/R group. Also, Ipre-I/R group showed non-significant change in serum creatinine and BUN. The expression of Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO-1 is increased significantly in Pre + I/R and Pre - I/R groups, while the enhancement in Post + I/R group was non-significant. Moreover, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1 and ICAM-1) and apoptotic (caspase-3) markers showed high significant attenuation in Pre + I/R group, but slight significant attenuation in Pre + I/R group. Conclusion: The renoprotective action of Ipre might include early activation and enhanced expression of Nrf2 gene and its dependent antioxidant genes, HO-1 and NOQ1, as endogenous adaptive renoprotective genes, as well as reduction in TNF-α, IL-1β, ICAM-1 and caspase-3. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society.