Muscat, Oman

Oman Medical College
Muscat, Oman

Oman Medical College is the second medical college in the Sultanate of Oman, and is situated in Sohar in the North Batinha region.The premedical campus is located in Bowsher. First year is taught as a foundation course and second and third years are completed in Bowsher campus before the medical school years of Sohar campus. Some part of the coursework is also completed in Rustaq with students taking courses with doctors at Rustaq hospital. The associated hospital with the Sohar campus is Sohar hospital, one of the biggest governmental hospitals in the country. Total course work spans over a period of 7 years and the degree awarded is that of a Doctor of Medicine . The Bowsher campus also offers a degree in pharmacy . This degree spans over a period of 5 and a half years. Wikipedia.

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Al Rahbi H.A.M.,Oman Medical College | Al-Sabri R.M.,Director General Khoula Hospital | Chitme H.R.,Oman Medical College
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal | Year: 2014

Interventions by the pharmacists have always been considered as a valuable input by the health care community in the patient care process by reducing the medication errors, rationalizing the therapy and reducing the cost of therapy. The primary objective of this study was to determine the number and types of medication errors intervened by the dispensing pharmacists at OPD pharmacy in the Khoula Hospital during 2009 retrospectively. The interventions filed by the pharmacists and assistant pharmacists in OPD pharmacy were collected. Then they were categorized and analyzed after a detailed review. The results show that 72.3% of the interventions were minor of which 40.5% were about change medication order. Comparatively more numbers of prescriptions were intervened in female patients than male patients. 98.2% of the interventions were accepted by the prescribers reflecting the awareness of the doctors about the importance of the pharmacy practice. In this study only 688 interventions were due to prescribing errors of which 40.5% interventions were done in changing the medication order of clarifying the medicine. 14.9% of the interventions were related to administrative issues, 8.7% of the interventions were related to selection of medications as well as errors due to ignorance of history of patients. 8.2% of the interventions were to address the overdose of medications. Moderately significant interventions were observed in 19.4% and 7.5% of them were having the impact on major medication errors. Pharmacists have intervened 20.8% of the prescriptions to prevent complications, 25.1% were to rationalize the treatment, 7.9% of them were to improve compliance. Based on the results we conclude that the role of pharmacist in improving the health care system is vital. We recommend more number of such research based studies to bring awareness among health care professionals, provide solution to the prescription and dispensing problems, as it can also improve the documentation system, emphasize the importance of it, reduce prescribing errors, and update the knowledge of pharmacists and other health care professionals. © 2013.

Ahmad R.,Oman Medical College | Ahsan H.,Jamia Millia Islamia University
Clinical and Experimental Medicine | Year: 2014

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibodies directed against various biomolecules. The initial immunogens that drive the development of SLE are unknown, but characteristics of the immune response in SLE suggest that it is an antigen-driven response, and a chromatin antigen could be one of the immunogens for the production of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in SLE. Other factors implicated in the pathogenesis of SLE include nitrogen-free radicals such as nitric oxide and peroxynitrite. The free radical-mediated damage to proteins results in the modification of amino acid residues, cross-linking of side chains and fragmentation. The tyrosine residues in proteins are susceptible to attack by various reactive nitrogen intermediates, including peroxynitrite to form 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT). The presence of nitrated proteins in vivo indicates that peptides derived from the proteolytic degradation of modified proteins could serve as neoantigens. Histones are highly conserved proteins that are rich in basic amino acids lysine and arginine. Autoantibodies against histones and anti-DNA antibodies are present in SLE. The anti-DNA autoantibodies coexist with anti-histone autoantibodies and may react with chromatin-associated histones and histone complexes. Elevated levels of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in SLE patients suggest a possible role in the pathogenesis of the disease. The alteration of proteins resulting from photomodification or peroxynitrite could lead to the development of antibodies. Therefore, the modified proteins or photoadducts could have important implications in autoimmunity, and understanding the pathophysiology of peroxynitrite-modified biomolecules could lead to a better understanding of autoimmune phenomenon in SLE. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Italia.

Talib W.H.,University of Jordan | Abukhader M.M.,University of Jordan | Abukhader M.M.,Oman Medical College
Scientia Pharmaceutica | Year: 2013

Background: One of the major causes of clinical trial termination is the liver toxicity induced by chemotherapeutic agents. Treatment with anticancer drugs like CB 1954 (5-(Aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide) is associated with significant hepatotoxicity. Thymoquinone (TQ), extracted from Nigella sativa, is reported to possess anticancer and hepatoprotective effects. The aims of the present study were to use TQ to reduce hepatotoxicity associated with CB 1954 and to augment its anticancer activity against the resistant mouse mammary gland cell line (66 cl-4-GFP). Method: Balb/C mice were transplanted with the 66cl-4-GFP cell line and in vivo antitumor activity was assessed for CB 1954 (141 mg/kg), TQ (10 mg/kg), and a combination of CB 1954 and TQ. Changes in tumor size and body weight were measured for each treatment. Histological examination of tumors and liver tissue samples was performed using the standard hematoxylin/eosin staining protocol, and serum levels of the liver enzymes AST and ALT were used as biomarkers of hepatotoxicity. Results: Severe liver damage and elevated plasma levels of AST and ALT were observed in the group treated with CB 1954. Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with a combination of CB 1954 and TQ caused a significant regression in tumor size and induced extensive necrosis in these tumors. The combination also protected the liver from drug-induced damage and reduced the plasma levels of AST and ALT to their normal ranges. Conclusion: These results suggest that the use of TQ with CB 1954 can reduce CB 1954-induced hepatotoxicity and enhance its anticancer activity, indicating the potential use of this combination in clinical studies. © Talib and AbuKhader; licensee Österreichische Apotheker-Verlagsgesellschaft m. b. H., Vienna, Austria.

Abukhader M.M.,University of Jordan | Abukhader M.M.,Oman Medical College
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2012

The maximum tolerated dose for intraperitoneal injection and oral ingestion of thymoquinone was determined in male and female Wistar rats. A range of dose levels of thymoquinone: 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg body weight for intraperitoneal injection and 200, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight for oral ingestion were tested for acute toxicity in rats. The results showed that the maximum tolerated dose for intraperitoneal injection was 22.5 mg/kg in male rats and 15 mg/kg in females, whereas for oral ingestion it was 250 mg/kg in both male and female rats. There were different signs of toxicity shown in rats which received intraperitoneal injection from those that received oral ingestion of thymoquinone. Rats which received intraperitoneal injection of thymoquinone showed toxicity signs which were related to acute pancreatitis. Meanwhile, rats which received oral ingestion of thymoquinone showed transient toxicity signs. Two deaths were reported at dose of 500 mg/kg as a result of bowel obstruction complications. The data presented in this study indicate that the route of administration of thymoquinone could have an influence on thymoquinone toxicity outcome in both genders.

Kumar A.,Jamia Hamdard University | Ahuja A.,Oman Medical College | Ali J.,Jamia Hamdard University | Baboota S.,Jamia Hamdard University
Drug Delivery | Year: 2016

Objective: In the present study, Curcumin (CU)-loaded nanocarrier (NC) such as nanoemulsion (NE) was developed with the objective of increasing its cytotoxicity and bioavailability through lymphatic transport by enhancing its solubility and intestinal permeability.Materials and methods: Based on the area obtained in pseudoternary phase diagram, various % combination of Labrafac Lipophile WL 1349, Solutol HS 15, Transcutol HP and distilled water were selected. Formulations which passed physical stability studies were selected for further studies such as globule size, zeta potential, in vitro release, ex vivo permeation, in vitro lipolysis studies, bioavailability studies and cytotoxicity against glioblastoma cells (U-87).Result and discussion: The optimized NC (NE-SB1) had small average globule diameter of 67 ± 6 nm with zeta potential of -37 ± 2.5 mv which indicated long-term dispersion stability. During in vitro lipolysis study, the digestion rate of medium chain triglycerides increased with decreased globule diameter. Statistically significant difference was found in AUC0-inf of NC formulation (p < 0.05) compared to CU suspension. The relative bioavailability of NC was found 11.88 ± 0.47 with respect to CU suspension. During cytotoxicity studies, IC50 of CU solution on U87 cells was found 24.23 μM, while for the NE- SB1 it was 16.41 μM. The optimized formulation was found to be stable during 6 months of accelerated stability.Conclusion: The overall results revealed that the CU-loaded NC is a very effective approach for enhancing the oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drug CU and have great potential for future clinical application. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Breakfast cereal is a widely popular morning breakfast meal and it is a source of nutrients and fibers for both children and adults. Purpose: This study was conducted to assess the nutritional composition of selected breakfast cereals in Omani market and the nutritional benefits of two serving portions; 30g and 45g. Methods: The nutritional information was extracted from the nutrition panel of each 26 products collected from hypermarket outlets and statistically analysed. Results: The salt content was found to be significantly high (P = 0.015) with original/plain and other flavours cereals when compared with the other two groups; honey/ sugar coated and chocolate flavour cereals. For the 26 breakfast cereals products, the serving portion of 45g has significant amounts of nutrients, except for total fat, when compared with that of 30g portion. The assessment of nutritional benefits of 30g and 45g portions in terms of total carbohydrates for two age groups 4-8 years and 9-13 years old children respectively is found to be within the range of recommended breakfast intake of carbohydrates per day. On the other hand, the energy intake provided by both portions for both age groups is low and inadequate when compared to the recommended breakfast intake of energy per day. Conclusion: For some breakfast cereal products the consumption by young children should be monitored due to the high salt content. In the studied sample, energy intake from 30g and 45g portions is considered low and should be compensated by the consumption of energy-rich food sources such as biscuits and nuts. © Mattioli 1885.

Khaket T.P.,Sb Spg Institute Of Biomedical Science And Research | Ahmad R.,Oman Medical College
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Hemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen transporting metalloprotein in the red cells of blood in mammals and other animals. Hemoprotein-mediated oxidative stress is thought to play a major role in pathophysiology of cerebral hemorrhage, blast pressure injury, crush injury, myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. Hemoglobin undergoes oxidation-reduction reactions that lead to both generation and consumption of highly reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. In the present study, hemoglobin molecule wastreated with hydrogen peroxide and the modification so incurred was analyzed by UV spectra, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and detection of carbonyl content. Our observations suggest that carbonyl content increases with increase in concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Production of hydroxyl radical was assessed by using benzoate degradation analysis. Our results was in tandem with the fact that hemoglobin on treatment with hydrogen peroxide rapidly generates free-radical species that can degrade benzoate to thiobarbituric acid reactive material which on reacting with thiobarbituric acid gives color. The increase in absorbance of ROS-modified hemoglobin at 532 nm shows the increase in benzoate degradation, which is a parameter of hydroxyl radical formation with increase in concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Modified hemoglobin was treated with catalase, mannitol, thiourea, glutathion, sodium benzoate and their effect were detected by spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE (12%). Substantial scavenging effect of aforementioned antioxidants reiterates the formation of hydroxyl radical. Catalase shows the maximum scavenging effect followed by thiourea and mannitol. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

Alhakmani F.,Oman Medical College | Kumar S.,Rv Northland Institute Of Pharmacy | Khan S.A.,Oman Medical College
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2013

Objective: To evaluate and compare the antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of flowers of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) grown in Oman. Methods: Flowers of M. oleifera were collected in the month of December 2012 and identified by a botanist. Alcoholic extract of the dry pulverized flowers of M. oleifera were obtained by cold maceration method. The ethanolic flower extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening as the reported methods. Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to estimate total phenolic content. DPPH was used to determine in-vitro antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity of flowers was investigated by protein denaturation method. Results: Phytochemical analysis of extract showed presence of major classes of phytochemicals such as tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides etc. M. oleifera flowers were found to contain 19.31 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent of total phenolics in dry extract but exhibited moderate antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of plant extract was significant and comparable with the standard drug diclofenac sodium. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that flowers of M. oleifera possess potent anti-inflammatory activity and are also a good source of natural antioxidants. Further study is needed to identify the chemical compounds responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity. © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.

Abukhader M.M.,Oman Medical College
Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Snack foods; crisps and biscuits, and beverages; fruit juices and soft drinks, are some of the most commonly consumed products by children of school age worldwide. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate if snack foods and beverages are suitable for consumption by children of school age through recording and comparing the nutritional information presented on the nutrition panel such as energy, protein, total carbohydrates and total fat for these products. METHODS: The nutritional information from 56 products sold in different supermarket out lets across Muscat, the capital city of Oman, was collected and statistically analysed using the mean and the percentage of Recommended Daily Intake. RESULTS: Based on the percentage of Recommended Daily Intake of energy and nutrients, crisps offer higher amounts of energy and total fat for children when compared to biscuits. Meanwhile, biscuits offer lower amount of energy than crisps but offer a higher amount of total carbohydrates for children. Regarding fruit juices and soft drinks, the former offer higher amount of energy than the later but both, however, offer comparable amounts of total carbohydrates. CONCLUSION: Upon comparing the nutritional information of the products studied and considering their nutritional benefits and health risks, it seems that biscuits are suitable choice for children. © 2015 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Abukhader M.,Oman Medical College
Pharmacognosy Reviews | Year: 2013

Thymoquinone (TQ) is The bioactive phytochemical constituent of The seeds oil of Nigella sativa. In vitro and in vivo research has Thoroughly investigated The anticancer effects of TQ against several cancer cell lines and animal models. As a result, a considerable amount of information has been generated from research Thus providing a better understanding of The anti-proliferating activity of This compound. Therefore, it is appropriate That TQ should move from Testing on The bench To clinical experiments. The purpose of This review is To highlight The potential of TQ as an anticancer agent and The chances of This compound in The clinical Treatment of cancer, with special attention on breast cancer Treatment.

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