Omaha, NE, United States
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Gaffo A.L.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Roseman J.M.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Jacobs Jr. D.R.,University of Minnesota | Jacobs Jr. D.R.,University of Oslo | And 6 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2010

Objective: To investigate if beer, liquor (spirits), wine and total alcohol intakes have different associations with serum urate (SU) concentrations at different ages in a cohort of young men and women. Methods: Data from 3123 participants at baseline and follow-up at 20 years were used, with balanced proportions of Caucasians and African Americans. The relationships of SU with categories of beer, liquor, wine and total alcohol intake referent to no intake were examined in sex-specific, cross-sectional analyses. Results: Mean age (SD) at the beginning of follow-up was 25.1 (3.6) years. Compared with non-drinkers, signifi cant associations between higher SU concentrations and greater beer intake were observed among men and women, with more pronounced and consistent associations for women. An association between greater liquor intake and higher SU concentrations was only seen for men at the year 20 evaluation. Wine intake was not associated with SU in either sex and total alcohol was associated with higher SU concentrations in both men and women. The magnitude of the associations between alcoholic beverages intake and SU was modest (≤0.03 mg/dl/alcoholic beverage serving). Conclusion: An association between higher SU concentrations and greater beer intake was consistent and pronounced among women, but also present in men. Despite the small magnitude of the increases in SU associated with alcohol intake, clinical implications in conditions such as cardiovascular disease and gout in young adults who are moderate and heavy drinkers cannot be ruled out.


Hou X.,Omaha Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Hou X.,Olson Center for Womens Health | Arvisais E.W.,Olson Center for Womens Health | Davis J.S.,Omaha Veterans Affairs Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2010

LH stimulates the production of cAMP in luteal cells, which leads to the production of progesterone, a hormone critical for the maintenance of pregnancy. The mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR) signaling cascade has recently been examined in ovarian follicles where it regulates granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation. This study examined the actions of LH on the regulation and possible role of the MTOR signaling pathway in primary cultures of bovine corpus luteum cells. Herein, we demonstrate that activation of the LH receptor stimulates the phosphorylation of the MTOR substrates ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1. The actions of LH were mimicked by forskolin and 8-bromo-cAMP. LH did not increase AKT or MAPK1/3 phosphorylation. Studies with pathway-specific inhibitors demonstrated that the MAPK kinase 1 (MAP2K1)/MAPK or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathways were not required for LH-stimulated MTOR/S6K1 activity. However, LH decreased the activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3B (GSK3B) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The actions of LH on MTOR/S6K1 were mimicked by agents that modulated GSK3B and AMPK activity. The ability of LH to stimulate progesterone secretion was not prevented by rapamycin, a MTOR inhibitor. In contrast, activation of AMPK inhibited LH-stimulated MTOR/S6K1 signaling and progesterone secretion. In summary, the LH receptor stimulates a unique series of intracellular signals to activate MTOR/S6K1 signaling. Furthermore, LH-directed changes in AMPK and GSK3B phosphorylation appear to exert a greater impact on progesterone synthesis in the corpus luteum than rapamycin-sensitive MTOR-mediated events. Copyright © 2010 by The Endocrine Society.


Arvisais E.,Omaha Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Arvisais E.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Hou X.,Omaha Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Hou X.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | And 9 more authors.
Molecular Endocrinology | Year: 2010

Little is known about the early intracellular events that contribute to corpus luteum regression. Experiments were designed to determine the effects of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) on phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling in the corpus luteum in vivo and in vitro. Treatment of midluteal-phase cows with a luteolytic dose of PGF2α resulted in a rapid increase in ERK and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K1) signaling and a rapid suppression of Akt phosphorylation in luteal tissue. In vitro treatment of primary cultures of luteal cells with PGF2α also resulted in an increase in ERK and mTOR/p70S6K1 signaling and a diminished capacity of IGF-I to stimulate PI3K, Akt, and protein kinase C ζ activation. Accounting for the reductions in PI3K and Akt activation observed in response to PGF2α treatment, we found that PGF2α promoted the phosphorylation of serine residues (307, 612, 636) in the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) peptide sequence in vivo and in vitro. Serine phosphorylation of IRS1 was associated with reduced formation of IGF-I-stimulated IRS1/PI3Kp85 complexes. Furthermore, treatment with inhibitors of the MAPK kinase 1/ERK or mTOR/p70S6K1 signaling pathways prevented PGF2α-induced serine phosphorylation of IRS1 and abrogated the inhibitory actions of PGF2α on Akt activation. Taken together, these experiments provide compelling evidence that PGF2α treatment stimulates IRS1 serine phosphorylation, which may contribute to a diminished capacity to respond to IGF-I. It seems likely that the rapid changes in phosphorylation events are among the early events that mediate PGF2α-induced corpus luteum regression. Copyright © 2010 by The Endocrine Society.


Carlson M.A.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Carlson M.A.,Omaha Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Chakkalakal D.,Orthopedic Research Laboratory | Chakkalakal D.,Creighton University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: In clinical surgery, the vertical midline abdominal incision is popular but associated with healing failures. A murine model of the ventral vertical midline incision was developed in order to study the healing of this incision type. Methodology/Principal Findings: The strength of the wild type murine ventral abdominal wall in the midline was contained within the dermis; the linea alba made a negligible contribution. Unwounded abdominal wall had a downward trend (nonsignificant) in maximal tension between 12 and 29 weeks of age. The incision attained 50% of its final strength by postoperative day 40. The maximal tension of the ventral vertical midline incision was nearly that of unwounded abdominal wall by postwounding day 60; there was no difference in unwounded vs. wounded maximal tension at postwounding day 120. Conclusions/Significance: After 120 days of healing, the ventral vertical midline incision in the wild type mouse was not significantly different from age-matched nonwounded controls. About half of the final incisional strength was attained after 6 weeks of healing. The significance of this work was to establish the kinetics of wild type incisional healing in a model for which numerous genotypes and genetic tools would be available for subsequent study.


Michaud K.,Omaha Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Michaud K.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Fehringer E.V.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Garvin K.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | And 4 more authors.
Arthritis Research and Therapy | Year: 2013

Introduction: Serious infection, cardiovascular disease, and mortality are increased in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Whether RA affects the risk for these complications after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is unknown, we hypothesize that it does. We compared the occurrence of 30-day postoperative complications and mortality in a large cohort of RA and osteoarthritis (OA) patients undergoing hip or knee TJA. Methods: Analyses included 7-year data from the Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program. The 30-day complications were compared by diagnosis by using logistic regression, and long-term mortality was examined by using Cox proportional hazards regression. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and clustering by surgical site. Additional covariates included sociodemographics, comorbidities, health behaviors, and operative risk factors. Results: The 34,524 patients (839 RA, 33,685 OA) underwent knee (65.9%) or hip TJA. Patients were 95.7% men with a mean (SD) age of 64.4 (10.7) years and had 3,764 deaths over a mean follow-up of 3.7 (2.3) years. Compared with OA patients, those with RA were significantly more likely to require a return to the operating room (odds ratio (OR), 1.45 (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.94), but had similar rates of 30-day postoperative infection, OR 1.02 (0.72 to 1.47), cardiovascular events, OR 0.69 (0.37 to 1.28), and mortality, OR 0.94 (0.38 to 2.33). RA was associated with a significantly higher long-term mortality; hazard ratio (HR), 1.22 (1.00 to 1.49).Conclusion: In this study of US veterans, RA patients were not at an increased risk for short-term mortality or other major complications after TJA, although they returned to the operating room more often and had increased long-term mortality. © 2013 Michaud et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Desouza C.V.,Omaha Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Desouza C.V.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Gupta N.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Patel A.,University of Nebraska Medical Center
Clinical Therapeutics | Year: 2015

Purpose Within the past decade, many new classes of drugs have received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, including glucagon-like peptide-1agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors. Many trials have been performed, and several more are currently ongoing to evaluate these drugs. This review addresses the broad therapeutic and pleiotropic effects of these drugs. The review also discusses the role of these drugs in the treatment paradigm for type 2 diabetes and identifies patients who would be suitable candidates for treatment with these drugs. Methods In this comprehensive evidence-based review, the following databases were searched from 1990 to the present: PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Portal, and the American Diabetes Association and European Association for the Study of Diabetes abstract databases. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were only included for the main therapeutic and cardiovascular (CV) effects of these drug classes. For pleiotropic effects, RCTs were included unless no RCTs exist, in which case other studies as specified in the detailed Methods section were included. Findings All 3 drug classes are effective in lowering hemoglobin A1c between 0.4% and 1.4%, depending on the drug class and population selected. These drug classes have beneficial effects on CV risk factors, such as weight, lipids, and blood pressure, in addition to lowering blood glucose levels. The CV tolerability of some drugs has been evaluated and found to be neutral; however, most trials are currently ongoing to assess CV tolerability. There are no concrete guidelines to determine where these drugs fit in the diabetes management paradigm, and there are ongoing trials to determine the best combination drug with metformin. Implications These 3 drug classes will potentially increase the armamentarium against hyperglycemia. However, the specific combinations with other antidiabetic drugs and populations that will best benefit from these drugs are still being tested. Future research is also being conducted on the use of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors in patients with type 1 diabetes.


Desouza C.V.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Desouza C.V.,Omaha Veterans Affairs Medical Center | Hamel F.G.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Hamel F.G.,Omaha Veterans Affairs Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Diabetes | Year: 2011

OBJECTIVE - Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are decreased in number and function in type 2 diabetes. Mechanisms by which this dysfunction occurs are largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a chronic inflammatory environment leads to insulin signaling defects in EPCs and thereby reduces their survival. Modifying EPCs by a knockdown of nuclear factor-kB (NF-κB) can reverse the insulin signaling defects, improve EPC survival, and decrease neointimal hyperplasia in Zucker fatty rats postangioplasty. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - EPCs from Zucker fatty insulin-resistant rats were cultured and exposed to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Insulin signaling defects and apoptosis were measured in the presence and absence of an NF-κB inhibitor, BAY11. Then, EPCs were modified by a knockdown of NF-κB (RelA) and exposed to TNF-α. For in vivo experiments, Zucker fatty rats were given modified EPCs post-carotid angioplasty. Tracking of EPCs was done at various time points, and neointimal hyperplasia was measured 3 weeks later. RESULTS - Insulin signaling as measured by the phosphorylated-to-total AKT ratio was reduced by 56% in EPCs exposed to TNF-α. Apoptosis was increased by 71%. These defects were reversed by pretreatment with an NF-κB inhibitor, BAY11. Modified EPCs exposed to TNF-α showed a lesser reduction (RelA 20%) in insulin-stimulated AKT phosphorylation versus a 55% reduction in unmodified EPCs. Apoptosis was 41% decreased for RelA knockdown EPCs. Noeintimal hyperplasia postangioplasty was significantly less in rats receiving modified EPCs than in controls (intima-to-media ratio 0.58 vs. 1.62). CONCLUSIONS - In conclusion, we have shown that insulin signaling and EPC survival is impaired in Zucker fatty insulin resistant rats. For the first time, we have shown that this defect can be significantly ameliorated by a knockdown of NF-κB and that these EPCs given to Zucker fatty rats decrease neointimal hyperplasia post-carotid angioplasty. © 2011 by the American Diabetes Association.


Fu D.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Lv X.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Hua G.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Hua G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 8 more authors.
Endocrine-Related Cancer | Year: 2014

The Hippo signaling pathway has been implicated as a conserved regulator of organ size in both Drosophila and mammals. Yes-associated protein (YAP), the central component of the Hippo signaling cascade, functions as an oncogene in several malignancies. Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCT) are characterized by enlargement of the ovary, excess production of estrogen, a high frequency of recurrence, and the potential for malignancy and metastasis. Whether the Hippo pathway plays a role in the pathogenesis of GCT is unknown. This study was conducted to examine the expression of YAP in human adult GCTs and to determine the role of YAP in the proliferation and steroidogenesis of GCT cells. Compared with age-matched normal human ovaries, GCT tissues exhibited higher levels of YAP expression. YAP protein was predominantly expressed in the nucleus of tumor cells, whereas the non-tumor ovarian stromal cells expressed very low levels of YAP. YAP was also expressed in cultured primary human granulosa cells and in KGN and COV434 GCT cell lines. siRNA-mediated knockdown of YAP in KGN cells resulted in a significant reduction in cell proliferation (P<0.001). Conversely, overexpression of wild type YAP or a constitutively active YAP (YAP1) mutant resulted in a significant increase in KGN cell proliferation and migration. Moreover, YAP knockdown reduced FSH-induced aromatase (CYP19A1) protein expression and estrogen production in KGN cells. These results demonstrate that YAP plays an important role in the regulation of GCTcell proliferation, migration, and steroidogenesis. Targeting the Hippo/YAP pathway may provide a novel therapeutic approach for GCT. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.


Wang C.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Lv X.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | He C.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Hua G.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2013

The G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) has recently been reported to mediate the non-genomic action of estrogen in different types of cells and tissues. G-1 (1-[4-(6-bromobenzo[1,3] dioxol-5yl)-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3H- cyclopenta[c]quinolin-8-yl]- ethanone) was developed as a potent and selective agonist for GPER. G-1 has been shown to induce the expression of genes and activate pathways that facilitate cancer cell proliferation by activating GPER. Here we demonstrate that G-1 has an anticancer potential with a mechanism similar to vinca alkaloids, the commonly used chemotherapy drugs. We found that G-1 blocks tubulin polymerization and thereby interrupts microtubule assembly in ovarian cancer cells leading to the arrest of cell cycle in the prophase of mitosis and the suppression of ovarian cancer cell proliferation. G-1 treatment also induces apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. The ability of G-1 to target microtubules to suppress ovarian cancer cell proliferation makes it a promising candidate drug for treatment of ovarian cancer. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


He C.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | He C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Lv X.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Hua G.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | And 7 more authors.
Oncogene | Year: 2015

Mechanisms underlying ovarian cancer initiation and progression are unclear. Herein, we report that the Yes-associated protein (YAP), a major effector of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, interacts with ERBB signaling pathways to regulate the initiation and progression of ovarian cancer. Immunohistochemistry studies indicate that YAP expression is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients. Overexpression or constitutive activation of YAP leads to transformation and tumorigenesis in human ovarian surface epithelial cells, and promotes growth of cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. YAP induces the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors (EGFR, ERBB3) and production of EGF-like ligands (HBEGF, NRG1 and NRG2). HBEGF or NRG1, in turn, activates YAP and stimulates cancer cell growth. Knockdown of ERBB3 or HBEGF eliminates YAP effects on cell growth and transformation, whereas knockdown of YAP abrogates NRG1- and HBEGF-stimulated cell proliferation. Collectively, our study demonstrates the existence of HBEGF & NRGs/ERBBs/YAP/HBEGF & NRGs autocrine loop that controls ovarian cell tumorigenesis and cancer progression. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

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