Omaha Veterans Administration Medical Center

Omaha, NE, United States

Omaha Veterans Administration Medical Center

Omaha, NE, United States
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Duryee M.J.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Duryee M.J.,Omaha Veterans Administration Medical Center | Klassen L.W.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Klassen L.W.,Omaha Veterans Administration Medical Center | And 10 more authors.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2010

Antibodies to malondialdehyde (MDA)-modified macromolecules (adducts) have been detected in the serum of patients with atherosclerosis and correlate with the progression of this disease. However, the epitope and its formation have not been characterized. Studies have shown that excess MDA can be degraded to acetaldehyde, which combines with proteins to from a stable dihydropyridine adduct. To investigate, mice were immunized with MDA adducts in the absence of adjuvant and showed an increase in antibodies to MDA adducts and the carrier protein as the concentration of MDA was increased. In fact, a number of the commercially available antibodies to MDA-modified proteins were able to be inhibited by a chemical analogue, hexyl-MAA. Also, MDA-MAA adducts were detected in the serum and aortic tissue of JCR diabetic/atherosclerotic rats. These studies determined that commercially available antibodies to MDA predominantly react with the MAA adduct and are present in the JCR model of atherosclerosis in both the serum and the aortic tissue. Therefore, the immune response to MDA-modified proteins is most probably to the dihydropyridine structure (predominant epitope in MAA), which suggests that MAA adducts may play a role in the development and/or progression of atherosclerosis. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Marshall L.,Touro College | Obaidullah M.,Touro College | Fuchs T.,Touro College | Fineberg N.S.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | And 4 more authors.
Immunogenetics | Year: 2014

CASPASE-12 (CASP12) has a downregulatory function during infection and thus may protect against inflammatory disease. We investigated the distribution of CASP12 alleles (#rs497116) in African-Americans (AA) with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). CASP12 alleles were genotyped in 953 RA patients and 342 controls. Statistical analyses comparing genotype groups were performed using Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric ANOVA with Mann-Whitney U tests and chi-square tests. There was no significant difference in the overall distribution of CASP12 genotypes within AA with RA, but CASP12 homozygous patients had lower baseline joint-narrowing scores. CASP12 homozygosity appears to be a subtle protective factor for some aspects of RA in AA patients. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Poole J.A.,Omaha Veterans Administration Medical Center | Poole J.A.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Kielian T.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Wyatt T.A.,Omaha Veterans Administration Medical Center | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology | Year: 2011

Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) is involved in innate immune responses to peptidoglycan degradation products. Peptidoglycans are important mediators of organic dust-induced airway diseases in exposed agriculture workers; however, the role of NOD2 in response to complex organic dust is unknown. Monocytes/macrophages were exposed to swine facility organic dust extract (ODE), whereupon NOD2 expression was evaluated by real-time PCR and Western blot. ODE induced significant NOD2 mRNA and protein expression at 24 and 48 h, respectively, which was mediated via a NF-κB signaling pathway as opposed to a TNF-α autocrine/paracrine mechanism. Specifically, NF-κB translocation increased rapidly following ODE stimulation as demonstrated by EMSA, and inhibition of the NF-κB pathway significantly reduced ODE-induced NOD2 expression. However, there was no significant reduction in ODE-induced NOD2 gene expression when TNF-α was inhibited or absent. Next, it was determined whether NOD2 regulated ODE-induced inflammatory cytokine production. Knockdown of NOD2 expression by small interfering RNA resulted in increased CXCL8 and IL-6, but not TNF-α production in response to ODE. Similarly, primary lung macrophages from NOD2 knockout mice demonstrated increased IL-6, CXCL1, and CXCL1, but not TNF-α, expression. Lastly, a higher degree of airway inflammation occurred in the absence of NOD2 following acute (single) and repetitive (3 wk) ODE exposure in an established in vivo murine model. In summary, ODE-induced NOD2 expression is directly dependent on NF-κB signaling, and NOD2 is a negative regulator of complex, organic dust-induced inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production in mononuclear phagocytes. © 2011 the American Physiological Society.

Thiele G.M.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Thiele G.M.,Omaha Veterans Administration Medical Center | Duryee M.J.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Duryee M.J.,Omaha Veterans Administration Medical Center | And 9 more authors.
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research | Year: 2010

Background and aims: Aldehydes that are produced following the breakdown of ethanol (acetaldehyde) and lipid peroxidation of membranes (malondialdehyde) have been shown to bind (adduct) proteins. Additionally, these two aldehydes can combine (MAA) on nonsyngeneic and syngeneic proteins to initiate numerous immune responses to the unmodified part of the protein in the absence of an adjuvant. Therefore, these studies provide a potential mechanism for the development of antigen-specific immune responses resulting in liver damage should syngeneic liver proteins be adducted with MAA. Methods: This study sought to test whether MAA-modified syngeneic liver cytosolic proteins administered daily in the absence of adjuvant into C57BL/6 mice abrogates tolerance to initiate a MAA-induced autoimmune-like hepatitis. Results: In mice immunized with MAA-modified cytosols, there was an increase in liver damage as assessed by aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase levels that correlated with liver pathology scores and the presence of the pro-fibrotic factors, smooth muscle actin, TGF-β, and collagen. IgG antibodies and T-cell proliferative responses specific for cytosolic proteins were also detected. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were produced in the livers of animals exposed to MAA-modified cytosols. Finally, transfer of immunized T cells to naïve animals caused biochemical and histological evidence of liver damage. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that a disease with an autoimmune-like pathophysiology can be generated in this animal model using soluble MAA-modified syngeneic liver cytosols as the immunogen. These studies provide insight into potential mechanism(s) that the metabolites of alcohol may play in contributing to the onset of an autoimmune-like disease in patients with alcoholic liver disease. © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism. No claim to original U.S. government works.

Goldfine A.B.,Joslin Diabetes Center | Goldfine A.B.,Brigham and Women's Hospital | Stewart Buck J.,Brigham and Women's Hospital | Stewart Buck J.,Emory University | And 8 more authors.
Diabetes Care | Year: 2013

Objective-To test whether inhibiting inflammation with salsalate improves endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Research design and methods-We conducted an ancillary study to the National Institutes of Health-sponsored, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebocontrolled trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of salsalate in targeting inflammation to improve glycemia in patients with T2D. Flow-mediated, endothelium-dependent dilation (FMD) and endothelium-independent, nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD) of the brachial artery were assessed at baseline and 3 and 6 months following randomization to either salsalate 3.5 g/day or placebo. The primary end point was change in FMD at 6 months. Results-A total of 88 participants were enrolled in the study, and data after randomization were available for 75. Patients in the treatment and control groups had similar ages (56 years), BMI (33 kg/m2), sex (64% male), ethnicity, current treatment, and baseline HbA1c (7.7% [61 mmol/mol]). In patients treated with salsalate versus placebo, HbA1c was reduced by 0.46% (5.0 mmol/mol; P < 0.001), fasting glucose by 16.1 mg/dL (P < 0.001), and white blood cell count by 430 cells/μL (P < 0.02). There was no difference in the mean change in either FMD (0.70% [95% CI -0.86 to 2.25%]; P = 0.38) or NMD (-0.59% [95% CI -2.70 to 1.51%]; P = 0.57) between the groups treated with salsalate and placebo at 6 months. Total and LDL cholesterol were 11 and 16 mg/dL higher, respectively, and urinary albumin was 2.0 μg/mg creatinine higher in the patients treated with salsalate compared with those treated with placebo (all P < 0.009). Conclusions-Salsalate does not change FMD in peripheral conduit arteries in patients with T2D despite lowering HbA1c. This finding suggests that salsalate does not have an effect on vascular inflammation, inflammation does not cause endothelial dysfunction in T2D, or confounding effects of salsalate mitigate favorable effects on endothelial function. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.

Poole J.A.,Omaha Veterans Administration Medical Center | Poole J.A.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Dooley G.P.,Colorado State University | Saito R.,Colorado State University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues | Year: 2010

In agricultural and other environments, inhalation of airborne microorganisms is linked to respiratory disease development. Bacterial endotoxins, peptidoglycans, and fungi are potential causative agents, but relative microbial characterization and inflammatory comparisons amongst agricultural dusts are not well described. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of microbial endotoxin, 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFA), muramic acid, and ergosterol and evaluate inflammatory responses in human monocytes and bronchial epithelial cells with various dust samples. Settled surface dust was obtained from five environments: swine facility, dairy barn, grain elevator, domestic home (no pets), and domestic home with dog. Endotoxin concentration was determined by recombinant factor C (rFC). 3-OHFA, muramic acid, and ergosterol were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dust-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion in human monocytes and bronchial epithelial cells was evaluated. Endotoxin-independent dust-induced inflammatory responses were evaluated. Endotoxin and 3-OHFA levels were highest in agricultural dusts. Muramic acid, endotoxin, 3-OHFA, and ergosterol were detected in dusts samples. Muramic acid was highest in animal farming dusts. Ergosterol was most significant in grain elevator dust. Agricultural dusts induced monocyte tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α , interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and epithelial cell IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. Monocyte and epithelial IL-6 and IL-8 secretion was not dependent on endotoxin. House dust(s) induced monocyte TNFα, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion. Swine facility dust generally produced elevated responses compared to other dusts. Agricultural dusts are complex with significant microbial component contribution. Large animal farming dust(s)-induced inflammation is not entirely dependent on endotoxin. Addition of muramic acid to endotoxin in large animal farming environment monitoring is warranted. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

PubMed | Omaha Veterans Administration Medical Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Immunologic research | Year: 2014

Joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by cartilage and bone loss resulting in pain, deformity, and loss of joint function. Anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) has been implicated in RA pathogenesis and predicts radiographical joint damage and clinical severity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess bone loss by micro-CT, histological joint damage, and ACPA levels using a mouse model of RA. Arthritis was induced by immunizing DBA/1 mice with autologous citrullinated type II mouse collagen (CIT-CII) weekly for 4 weeks. Mice immunized with autologous CII served as controls. At week 5, mice were killed, ACPA levels determined, and micro-CT performed to quantitatively analyze bone damage. Micro-CT analysis revealed significant loss of bone density, volume, and surface (p < 0.05) in bone peripheral to the inflamed joints of CIT-CII animals compared to CII controls. Histological staining demonstrated cartilage, proteoglycan, joint collagen, and bone collagen loss in the CIT-CII group compared to CII. Serum ACPA levels were increased (p = 0.03) in the CIT-CII group compared to CII, and these levels were inversely correlated with bone quantity and quality. In this study, we demonstrate that immunization with autologous CIT-CII initiates significant systemic bone and articular cartilage loss in the absence of adjuvant. Significant inverse correlations of circulating ACPA and bone quality/quantity were present. ACPA levels predict the adverse bone morphological changes in this model of early RA.

PubMed | Omaha Veterans Administration Medical Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biological trace element research | Year: 2013

A chemoprotective role for dietary selenium in malignancy has been well documented in numerous epidemiological and experimental studies. The precise mechanisms of this relationship are not understood, but may be related to observations that selenium can inhibit the proliferation of various normal and neoplastic cells, both in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we present evidence that selenium at physiologic concentrations can effectively inhibit the overall proliferation of human lymphocyte populations in response to various immune stimuli in vitro, including mixed lymphocyte response and response to soluble antigen (tetanus toxoid). This inhibition was reversible, indicating that selenium was not toxic to the lymphocytes at these concentrations. Preliminary data from our laboratory indicate that the antiproliferative effects of selenium may be specific for certain lymphocyte subsets. Similar modulation of immune responses in vivo could enhance various humoral and cellular immune mechanisms. Together with published evidence that selenium can inhibit tumor cell proliferation, these data may help to explain the decreased incidence of cancer associated with elevated selenium intake.

PubMed | Omaha Veterans Administration Medical Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International immunopharmacology | Year: 2012

Citrullinated self-proteins are thought to be involved in the onset/progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Numerous studies have been performed to look for the self-antigen that becomes citrullinated and induces RA. Importantly, these studies have been performed using citrullinated self-antigens injected into an animal model in the presence of a strong adjuvant in order to derive the response. However, to date no studies have been performed to determine if these phenotypes can be induced in the absence of an adjuvant.To investigate this possibility, mice were immunized with citrullinated or non-citrullinated mouse Type II collagen (Cit-Col or Col) in the presence or absence of Freunds Complete Adjuvant (FCA).An autoimmune-like RA response was observed in mice immunized with Cit-Col in the absence of FCA; by the increase in caliper score, visual observation, and micro-CT analysis of bone erosions. Antibody and T-cell responses were increased in the Cit-Col injected mice to Cit-Col as well as antibody to Anti-Citrullinated Peptide Antigens (ACPA) as determined by a commercially available test kit.Therefore, the use of citrullinated mouse collagen induces an autoimmune-like RA in the absence of an adjuvant. These data also suggest that citrullinate self-proteins may be potential molecular adjuvants that assist in driving an inflammatory response, that increases the production of PAD in joint tissue, resulting in the citrullination of other self-proteins to exacerbate the disease.

PubMed | Omaha Veterans Administration Medical Center
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A | Year: 2012

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by an airway and systemic inflammatory response. Bioaerosols/organic dusts are important agricultural pollutants that may lead to COPD. These environments are complex, containing a rich source of various microbial components. The objective of this study was to determine whether individuals with COPD have enhanced systemic responsiveness to settled swine facility organic dust extract (ODE) or its main pathogenic components (peptidoglycan [PGN], lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) versus healthy volunteers. A modified whole blood assay (WBA) that included occupational levels of ODE and concentrations of LPS and PGN found in ODE was used to determine systemic responsiveness (mediator release), and sputum inflammatory markers were measured to explore for systemic and airway associations. Sputum samples were evaluated for cell counts, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, interleukin (IL)-8/CXCL8, IL-6, and IL-10. Ex vivo whole blood stimulation with ODE, LPS, and PGN each resulted in significant mediator release in all subjects, with the highest occurring with ODE; PGN resulted in significantly enhanced TNF- and IL-8 as compared to LPS. COPD subjects demonstrated greater systemic responsiveness using the modified WBA versus healthy controls. Within COPD subjects, blood baseline TNF-, IL-8, and IL-10 and ODE-, PGN-, and LPS-stimulated IL-8 levels significantly correlated with lung function. In conclusion, dust-induced mediator release was robust, and PGN, in part, resembled dust-induced mediator release. Subjects with COPD demonstrated increased mediator release following ex vivo whole blood stimulation with bioaerosol components, suggesting that circulating blood cells in COPD subjects may be primed to respond greater to microbial/inflammatory insult.

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