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Omaha, NE, United States

Desouza C.V.,Omaha Medical Center | Desouza C.V.,University of Nebraska Medical Center
Journal of Diabetes and its Complications | Year: 2013

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are vital for the maintenance and repair of the endothelium. Decreased EPC number and function have been associated with increased cardiovascular (CVD) risk. Patients with diabetes have decreased number of circulating EPCs and decreased EPC function. This may account for some of the increased CVD risk seen in patients with diabetes that is not explained by traditional risk factors such as glycemic control, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Recent studies seem to indicate that drugs commonly used in diabetes patients such as metformin, thiazolidinediones, GLP-1 agonists, DPP-4 inhibitors, insulin, statins and ACE inhibitors may increase EPC number and improve EPC function. The mechanisms by which these drugs modulate EPC function may involve reduction in inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance as well as an increase in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. This review will discuss the evidence in the literature regarding the above mentioned topics. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Ren K.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Purdue P.E.,Hospital for Special Surgery | Burton L.,Hospital for Special Surgery | Quan L.-D.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Pharmaceutics | Year: 2011

Wear particle-induced inflammation is considered to be the major cause of aseptic implant loosening and clinical failure after total joint replacement. Due to the frequent absence of symptoms, early detection and intervention prior to implant failure presents a significant challenge. To address this issue, a N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer-based optical imaging contrast agent (P-IRDye) was developed and used for the detection of wear particle-induced inflammation employing a murine calvaria osteolysis model. The particle-induced osteolysis of calvaria was evaluated by H&E, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and μ-CT after necropsy. One-day post particle implantation, P-IRDye was administrated to the mice via tail vein injection. Live imaging of the animals 6 days after implantation revealed the preferential distribution and sustained retention of the macromolecular contrast agent at the site of particle implantation. Immunohistochemical staining and FACS analyses of the calvaria-associated soft tissue revealed extensive uptake of the HPMA copolymer by F4/80, Ly-6G (Gr1) and CD11c positive cells, which accounts for the retention of the macromolecular probes at the inflammatory sites. To test the potential of the system for therapeutic intervention, an acid-labile HPMA copolymer-dexamethasone conjugate (P-Dex) was prepared and shown to prevent the particle-induced inflammation and bone damage in the calvaria osteolysis model. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Mikuls T.R.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Payne J.B.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Yu F.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Thiele G.M.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | And 18 more authors.
Arthritis and Rheumatology | Year: 2014

Objective To examine the degree to which shared risk factors explain the relationship of periodontitis (PD) to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to determine the associations of PD and Porphyromonas gingivalis with pathologic and clinical features of RA. Methods Patients with RA (n = 287) and patients with osteoarthritis as disease controls (n = 330) underwent a standardized periodontal examination. The HLA-DRB1 status of all participants was imputed using single-nucleotide polymorphisms from the extended major histocompatibility complex. Circulating anti-P gingivalis antibodies were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and subgingival plaque was assessed for the presence of P gingivalis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Associations of PD with RA were examined using multivariable regression. Results Presence of PD was more common in patients with RA and patients with anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive RA (n = 240; determined using the anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide 2 [anti-CCP-2] test) than in controls (35% and 37%, respectively, versus 26%; P = 0.022 and P = 0.006, respectively). There were no differences between RA patients and controls in the levels of anti-P gingivalis or the frequency of P gingivalis positivity by PCR. The anti-P gingivalis findings showed a weak, but statistically significant, association with the findings for both anti-CCP-2 (r = 0.14, P = 0.022) and rheumatoid factor (RF) (r = 0.19, P = 0.001). Presence of PD was associated with increased swollen joint counts (P = 0.004), greater disease activity according to the 28-joint Disease Activity Score using C-reactive protein level (P = 0.045), and higher total Sharp scores of radiographic damage (P = 0.015), as well as with the presence and levels of anti-CCP-2 (P = 0.011) and RF (P < 0.001). The expression levels of select ACPAs (including antibodies to citrullinated filaggrin) were higher in patients with subgingival P gingivalis and in those with higher levels of anti-P gingivalis antibodies, irrespective of smoking status. Associations of PD with established seropositive RA were independent of all covariates examined, including evidence of P gingivalis infection. Conclusion Both PD and P gingivalis appear to shape the autoreactivity of RA. In addition, these results demonstrate an independent relationship between PD and established seropositive RA. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

Ganti A.K.,Omaha Medical Center | Ganti A.K.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | DeShazo M.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Weir III A.B.,University of Memphis | And 2 more authors.
JNCCN Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network | Year: 2012

Lung cancer is a disease of the elderly, with a median age at diagnosis of 70 years. However, there is a dearth of good quality evidence to guide treatment in this population and most of the data are extrapolated from younger patients. Current research is directed toward establishing simplified instruments to quantify fitness of older patients for various forms of therapy. Although current evidence suggests that outcomes after standard therapy are similar to those seen in younger patients, older patients have an increased incidence of adverse events. Until better predictive markers are available to guide treatment, therapy should be individualized using available instruments, including a comprehensive geriatric assessment. If an older patient is deemed to be fit, it is reasonable to use the treatment options recommended for younger individuals. This article summarizes the available data on the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer in the older patient. © JNCCN-Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

Curtis J.R.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Yang S.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Patkar N.M.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Chen L.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | And 13 more authors.
Arthritis Care and Research | Year: 2014

Objective The comparative risk of infection associated with non-anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) biologic agents is not well established. Our objective was to compare risk for hospitalized infections between anti-TNF and non-anti-TNF biologic agents in US veterans with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Using 1998-2011 data from the US Veterans Health Administration, we studied RA patients initiating rituximab, abatacept, or anti-TNF therapy. Exposure was based upon days supplied (injections) or usual dosing intervals (infusions). Treatment episodes were defined as new biologic agent use. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for hospitalization for a bacterial infection were estimated from Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Among 3,152 unique RA patients contributing 4,158 biologic treatment episodes to rituximab (n = 596), abatacept (n = 451), and anti-TNF agents (n = 3,111), the patient mean age was 60 years and 87% were male. The most common infections were pneumonia (37%), skin/soft tissue (22%), urinary tract (9%), and bacteremia/sepsis (7%). Hospitalized infection rates per 100 person-years were 4.4 (95% CI 3.1-6.4) for rituximab, 2.8 (95% CI 1.7-4.7) for abatacept, and 3.0 (95% CI 2.5-3.5) for anti-TNF. Compared to etanercept, the adjusted rate of hospitalized infection was not different for adalimumab (HR 1.4, 95% CI 0.9-2.2), abatacept (HR 1.1, 95% CI 0.6-2.1), or rituximab (HR 1.4, 0.8-2.6), although it was increased for infliximab (HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-4.0). Infection risk was greater for those taking prednisone >7.5 mg/day (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.7) and in the highest quartile of C-reactive protein (HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4-3.8) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (HR 4.1, 95% CI 2.3-7.2) compared to the lowest quartile. Conclusion In older, predominantly male US veterans with RA, the risk of hospitalized bacterial infections associated with rituximab or abatacept was similar to etanercept. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

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