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Olivetti S.p.A. is an Italian manufacturer of typewriters, computers, tablets, smartphones, printers and other such business products as calculators and fax machines. Headquartered in Ivrea, province of Turin, the company has been part of the Telecom Italia Group since 2003. The first PC can be assigned to Olivetti as the Programma 101, produced in 1964 and a big success in the US market. Wikipedia.

Boniardi M.,Polytechnic of Milan | Boniardi M.,Olivetti | Ielmini D.,Polytechnic of Milan
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2011

The resistance of amorphous chalcogenides used in phase change memory devices increases over time due to structural relaxation (SR). The resistance drift usually follows a power law with time described by an exponent . Understanding the origin of may lead to engineering methods to improve the stability in memory devices. This work presents an analytical model to describe the activation energies for conduction and SR based on the Meyer-Neldel rule. The model accounts for the observed temperature and time dependence of resistance, and highlights that is related to the ratio between conduction and SR activation energies at any given time during drift. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

Ghidini G.,Olivetti
Microelectronics Reliability | Year: 2012

Aim of this work is to give a complete overview of Flash memory cell reliability issues. The main physical mechanisms occurring during operating conditions are reviewed for understanding the technological limits of these memories. In particular, stress induced leakage current causes problems of single bit charge loss at room and at high temperature after cycling, while charge trapping and de-trapping degrade performance and operative memory window. Also random telegraph noise degrades memory window and process optimization has to be considered. The investigation of the physical mechanisms behind allows improving memory reliability giving suggestion for tunnel oxide quality optimization. In particular, tunnel oxide nitridation will be deeply investigated. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lacaita A.L.,CNR Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies | Redaelli A.,Olivetti
Microelectronic Engineering | Year: 2013

The successful development of phase change memory technology (PCM) has been one of the most relevant novelties in the field of semiconductor memories of the last years. PCM products at the 45 nm node are being manufactured, mainly driven by applications in cellular phones. In the coming years, the consolidated know-how accumulated over five decades of research activities and more than ten years of industrial experience will further drive the race of resistive storage components to nanoscale, supporting the development of energy-aware, optimized memory systems for both stand-alone and embedded applications. This paper provides an overview of the most recent developments on phase change physics and technology, pointing out the key topics requiring additional investigation and further understanding. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.All rights reserved.

Di Marzo V.,CNR Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry | De Petrocellis L.,Olivetti
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

The endocannabinoid system was revealed following the understanding of the mechanism of action of marijuana's major psychotropic principle, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and includes two G-proteincoupled receptors (GPCRs; the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors), their endogenous ligands (the endocannabinoids, the best studied of which are anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)), and the proteins that regulate the levels and activity of these receptors and ligands. However, other minor lipid metabolites different from, but chemically similar to, anandamide and 2-AG have also been suggested to act as endocannabinoids. Thus, unlike most other GPCRs, cannabinoid receptors appear to have more than one endogenous agonist, and it has been often wondered what could be the physiological meaning of this peculiarity. In 1999, it was proposed that anandamide might also activate other targets, and in particular the transient receptor potential of vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channels. Over the last decade, this interaction has been shown to occur both in peripheral tissues and brain, during both physiological and pathological conditions. TRPV1 channels can be activated also by another less abundant endocannabinoid, N-arachidonoyldopamine, but not by 2-AG, and have been proposed by some authors to act as ionotropic endocannabinoid receptors. This article will discuss the latest discoveries on this subject, and discuss, among others, how anandamide and 2-AG differential actions at TRPV1 and cannabinoid receptors contribute to making this signalling system a versatile tool available to organisms to fine-tune homeostasis. © 2012 The Royal Society.

Olivetti | Date: 2011-06-07

A method of manufacturing an ink jet printhead includes: providing a silicon substrate including active ejecting elements; providing a hydraulic structure layer; providing a silicon orifice plate having a plurality of nozzles for ejection of said ink; and assembling the silicon substrate with said hydraulic structure layer and said silicon orifice plate. Providing the silicon orifice plate comprises: providing a silicon wafer having a substantially planar extension delimited by a first and a second surfaces; performing a thinning step at the second surface so as to remove a central portion having a preset height; and forming in the silicon wafer a plurality of through holes, each defining a respective nozzle for ejection of the ink.

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