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Hammam Sousse, Tunisia

Ramezani S.,Tarbiat Modares University | Blibech I.,Olive Tree Institute | Trindade Rei F.,University of Evora | Van Asch B.,Stellenbosch University | Teixeira Da Costa L.,University of Evora
European Journal of Entomology | Year: 2015

Despite an age-old tradition of olive growing and its geographical location, Iran was apparently free of the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi, 1790) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the major worldwide olive tree pest, until the last decade. However, this situation has changed radically since B. oleae was first reported in 2004, and the olive fly is now Iran's most important pest of olive trees, and a very serious threat to olive production in the Northern and more humid parts of the country. Genetic analyses of mitochondrial markers of B. oleae collected in the traditional olive growing area in Northwestern Iran were used to determine the origin of this pest. The results indicate it was most likely imported on olive trees from the Central Mediterranean area.

Costechareyre D.,CNRS Microbial Ecology | Rhouma A.,Olive Tree Institute | Lavire C.,CNRS Microbial Ecology | Portier P.,CNRS Microbial Ecology | And 6 more authors.
Microbial Ecology | Year: 2010

The analysis of housekeeping recA gene sequences from 138 strains from 13 species or genomic species of Agrobacterium, nine being biovar 1 genomospecies, and the others Agrobacterium larrymoorei, Agrobacterium rubi, Agrobacterium sp. NCPPB 1650, and Agrobacterium vitis and one "former" Agrobacterium species, Rhizobium rhizogenes, led to the identification of 50 different recA alleles and to a clear delineation of the 14 species or genomospecies entirely consistent with that obtained by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. The relevance of a recA sequencing approach for epidemiological analyses was next assessed on agrobacterial Tunisian isolates. All Tunisian isolates were found to belong to the Agrobacterium tumefaciens/biovar 1 species complex by both biochemical tests and rrs sequencing. recA sequence analysis further permitted their unambiguous assignment to A. tumefaciens genomospecies G4, G6, G7, and G8 in total agreement with the results of an AFLP-based analysis. At subspecific level, several Tunisian recA alleles were novel, indicating the power and accuracy of recA-based typing for studies of Agrobacterium spp. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Bensassi F.,National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bensassi F.,Laboratory for Research on Biologically Compatible Compounds | Rhouma A.,Olive Tree Institute | Ghrab M.,University of Sfax | And 2 more authors.
Mycotoxin Research | Year: 2010

Aflatoxins (AFs) are potent sources of health risks to both humans and animals. Among them, AFB1 is the most hazardously toxic and the most frequent in various food commodities, including pistachio nuts. In this survey, the effect of the storage period on AFB1 accumulation on pistachio nuts was investigated. A total of 49 samples collected during the crop year of 2005 from the most cultivated pistachio cultivars in Tunisia were rapidly screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) combined with an immunoaffinity step. The obtained results showed that the contamination of pistachio nuts has occurred clearly after two years of storage for all the tested cultivars except the case of Mateur variety and Thyna ecotypes. In this study, the cultivar Mateur was found to be the most susceptible cultivar to contamination by AFB1. After 4 years of storage, the average contamination levels in nut samples ranged from 2.7 ± 0.3 to 12.7 ± 2.2 μg/kg for AFB1, according to the cultivar. These levels exceeded the maximum permitted limit of 2 μg/kg set by the European Commission in nuts. © 2010 Society for Mycotoxin Research and Springer.

Bensassia F.,Laboratory for Research on Biologically Compatible Compounds | Bensassia F.,National Institute for Agricultural Research | Rjibac I.,Laboratory of Biochemistry | Zarrouka A.,Laboratory for Research on Biologically Compatible Compounds | And 3 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B Surveillance | Year: 2011

In Tunisia, barley is commonly used in human consumption in a variety of food forms. In this regard, a high quality of this agricultural product is always demanded by consumers. A survey of the natural occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON), the most common Fusarium mycotoxin in small grain cereals, in barley harvested in the main cropping regions in Northern Tunisia in the 2009 harvest was conducted. A total of 72 samples were analysed for DON using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a UV visible detector set at 220 nm. Between 36% and 100% of the samples were positive for DON with averages ranging from 1.2 to 2.4 mgkg -1. A positive correlation between DON levels and temperature was seen; on the other side no correlation between DON contents and rainfall was observed. In this study we notably showed the effect of regions on DON contamination. © 2011 Centre for Food Safety, Hong Kong.

Mezni F.,National Institute for Researches on Rural Engineering | Labidi A.,National Institute for Researches on Rural Engineering | Msallem M.,Olive Tree Institute | Boussaid M.,Tunisian National Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Materials and Environmental Science | Year: 2014

Pistacia lentiscus seed oil is a natural product widely used for culinary and medicinal purposes in Algerian and Tunisian forest areas. Until now, the quality of this oil is still not well known. This study aims to optimize its quality by determining the best period to harvest fruits. Quality criteria include fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of this oil. Fruits were harvested during three maturity stages: unripe, ripe and over ripe. Oleic acid was the major fatty acid (more than 40%), followed by palmitic (22.28-28.6%) and linoleic (13.63-20.5%) acids. Antioxidant activity was estimated using DPPH scavenging ability and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assays. Oil extracted from the pulp at over-ripeness showed the highest percentage of inhibition of DPPH with about 37% corresponding to 80 ng of Trolox/g of oil.

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